Writing and Reporting News : A Coaching Method / Edition 5

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Prepare yourself for the changing world of journalism with Rich's WRITING AND REPORTING NEWS: A COACHING METHOD, the book that integrates new trends in the convergence of print, broadcast and online media while teaching fundamental skills. With information about blogs, multimedia writing, and new skills you'll need for whatever career you choose, the Sixth Edition features tips, techniques, and real-life stories from writing coaches and award-winning journalists. A strong "storytelling" approach makes the text accessible and interesting, helping you easily master the writing and reporting techniques you'll need for success in any news medium.

Writing And Reporting News prepares students for the changing world of journalism by emphasizing traditional basic skills while also stressing new trends in the convergence of print, broadcast and online media. With new information about blogs, multimedia writing, and other skills students will need for careers in the media, the Fifth Edition retains its emphasis on writing fundamentals and ethics in journalism, as well as the coaching method, which features tips and techniques from writing coaches and award-winning journalists. The text's strong "storytelling" approach with stories about journalists and its built-in instructional material make it accessible and easy for students to learn effective writing and reporting techniques for every news medium.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495166290
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 2/28/2006
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5

Meet the Author

Carole Rich is a journalism professor at the University of Alaska Anchorage, where she served as the Atwood professor before accepting a full-time position. She also served as chair of the journalism department at Hofstra University in New York for two years, taught journalism at the University of Kansas for 11 years, and worked for 16 years in the newspaper industry. She was a reporter for the former Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, city editor of the Sun-Sentinel in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., and deputy metropolitan editor of the Hartford (Conn.) Courant. Rich has been a visiting writing coach at newspapers throughout the United States and has conducted many writing seminars for journalism organizations, including a seminar for professional journalists in Spain. She is the author of multiple well-regarded media and reporting textbooks.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction: Tips From Award-winning Journalists xix
Part 1 Understanding News
1 Write From the Start: A Coaching Method 1
The Reporting and Writing Process 2
How to Be Your Own Writing Coach 3
Determining Your Focus 3
What's the story about? 3
How would you tell the story to a friend? 3
Putting It All Together 4
Adding Visual Elements 6
Point of entry 6
Summary blurb 6
Facts box 7
Empowerment box 8
Pull quote 8
Infographic 9
Exercises 9
2 Changing Concepts of News 13
The Internet 13
Increasing Competition 14
Changing Reporting Skills 14
Increasing Job Opportunities 16
The Changing Newsroom Structure 16
Public Journalism 17
Hard News and Features 18
Ethics 19
Qualities of News Stories 20
The Importance of Graphics 26
Exercises 28
3 The Basic News Story 31
Conflict and Resolution 32
Elements of the Basic News Story 33
Headline 33
Lead 33
Backup for the Lead 34
Nut Graph 34
Lead Quote 35
Impact 36
Attribution 37
Background 38
Elaboration 38
Ending 39
Graphics 39
Examples of Basic News Stories 39
Quotes and Attribution 41
Coaching Tips 41
When to Use Direct Quotes 43
How to Write Quotes 45
When to Use Attribution 48
Plagiarism 49
Wording of attributions 50
Overview attribution 50
Second references 50
Title 51
Courtesy titles 51
Ethics 51
Exercises 52
4 Grammar and Usage 57
Exercises 65
5 Story Ideas 69
The Internet 70
Other Ways to Find Story Ideas 71
Ethics 76
Press Releases 76
Coaching Tips 76
Idea Budgets 78
Exercises 78
Part 2 Collecting Information
6 Curiosity and Observation 81
Curiosity 82
Observation 83
The Show-in-action Technique 84
Hard News vs. Soft News 85
Fact vs. Opinion 85
Observation to Find Questions 86
Observation for Visual Presentation 86
Ethics 87
Exercises 87
7 Sources of Information 91
Human Sources 92
Anonymous Sources 95
Promises 96
On and off the record 97
Multicultural Sources 98
Written Sources 99
Electronic Sources 100
Databases 100
Public Records 101
Online Sources 102
Other Public Records 105
The Freedom of Information Act 107
Exercises 110
8 Listening and Note-taking Skills 113
The Pros and Cons of Tape Recorders 114
Listening Tips 115
Note-taking Tips 116
Exercises 119
9 Interviewing Techniques 121
Sensitivity 123
Tips for Interviewers 123
Planning the Interview 124
Conducting the Interview 125
Reporting for Graphics 129
The GOAL Method of Interviewing 130
Ethics 131
Telephone Interviewing 131
E-mail Interviewing 134
Exercises 134
Part 3 Constructing Stories
10 The Writing Process 137
Ways to Approach the Writing Process 138
The FORK Method 138
Focus 138
Order 139
Repetition of Key words 140
The Kiss off 141
Briefs 143
The Online Writing Process 143
How to Revise Stories 145
Writing Process Tips 146
Exercises 148
11 Leads and Nut Graphs 151
Hard-news Leads, Soft Leads and Nut Graphs 152
The Wow Test 155
The Impact of Graphics on Leads 155
Hard-news Leads 156
Summary Leads 156
Order of information 157
Active versus passive voice 158
Where to say when 159
Delayed identification 160
Second-day Leads 161
Impact Leads 162
Attribution in Leads 162
Fact versus opinion 163
Accusations 163
Quotes 164
Attribution first or last 165
Cluttered attribution 166
Soft Leads 167
Coaching Tips 167
Descriptive Leads 168
Anecdotal Leads 168
Narrative Leads 169
Other Soft Leads 169
Focus-on-a-person leads 169
Contrast leads 170
Teaser leads 171
Mystery leads 171
Build-on-a-quote leads 172
List leads 173
Question leads 173
Cliche leads 174
Leads to Avoid 174
How to Find Your Lead 178
Exercises 178
12 Body Building 183
Middles of Stories 184
Transition Techniques 184
Techniques for Maintaining Interest 185
Parallelism 185
Pacing 186
Anecdotes 186
Dialogue 187
BBI: Boring but important stuff 187
Simple sentences for complex information 188
Lists 188
Cliffhangers: Mystery middles 188
Endings 190
Circle Kickers 190
Quote Kickers 191
Future-action Kickers 191
Climaxes 192
Cliffhangers 193
Factual Kickers 194
Out-of-gas Endings 194
Body Building From Start to Finish 195
Exercises 196
13 Story Structures 199
Inverted Pyramid 201
Wall Street Journal Formula 202
Hourglass Structure 205
List Technique 206
Pyramid Structure 207
Sections Technique 208
Nonlinear Structure for the Web 214
Exercises 215
14 Storytelling and Feature Techniques 221
Narrative Writing 222
Reading to Write 224
Storytelling Concepts 224
Reporting Tools 226
Writing Tools 228
Theme 228
Descriptive Techniques 229
Avoid adjectives 229
Use analogies 229
Limit physical descriptions 230
Avoid sexist/racist descriptions 230
Show people in action 231
Use lively verbs 231
Set the scene 231
Narrative Techniques 233
Use foreshadowing 234
Create tone 234
Storytelling Structure 236
Narrative Storytelling 238
Online Storytelling 240
Exercises 241
15 Public Relations Writing 243
Media Resistance 245
The Media's Needs 246
Newsworthiness 246
Good Writing 246
Credibility 247
Ethics 247
Media Kits 248
Writing Skills for Press Releases 249
A Direct Approach 249
The Structure of Press Releases 251
Corporate Publications 254
Press Release Checklist 255
Online Resources 256
Exercises 257
16 Broadcast Writing 261
Planning a Newscast 263
Writing for Broadcast 268
Broadcast vs. Newspaper Writing 271
The Writing Process 274
Story Structure 275
Lead 275
Body 277
Ending 280
Teasers and Lead-ins 280
Copy Preparation and Style 282
Punctuation 283
Numbers 283
Names and Titles 284
Using Broadcast Terms 284
Writing a Package 285
Ethics 288
Broadcasting Online 289
Exercises 289
Part 4 Understanding Media Issues
17 Accuracy and Libel 293
The Importance of Accuracy 294
Checking Information 295
Showing Copy to Sources 295
Libel 296
Times v. Sullivan 297
Public Officials 297
Public Figures 298
Private Figures 299
Corrections 300
Privilege 301
Neutral Reportage 302
Fair Comment and Criticism 303
Invasion of Privacy 303
Intrusion Into a Person's Solitude 303
Public Disclosure of Private Facts 304
Publicity That Puts a Person in a False Light 305
Use of Person's Name or Picture Without Permission 306
Online Legal Issues 306
Exercises 308
18 Media Ethics 311
Deception 311
Privacy Issues 313
Public Officials 313
Celebrities 316
Rape Victims 318
Photo Subjects 319
A Guideline for Privacy Issues 320
Political Correctness 320
Media Manipulation 321
Moral Reasoning 322
The Poynter Institute Model 322
Philosophical Approaches 323
Codes of Ethics 324
Exercises 325
19 Multicultural Sensitivity 329
The Language of Multiculturalism 330
Minorities in the News 330
The Ethnic Beat 333
Gender Differences 334
Guidelines for Writing About Special Groups 338
People With Disabilities 338
Stories About Aging 339
AIDS Stories 341
The writer's task 342
A Pulitzer Prize AIDS story 342
Ground rules for sensitive questions 344
Terminology 345
Online Multicultural Resources 345
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