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Writing Arguments, Concise Edition: A Rhetoric with Readings / Edition 5

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Overview

The market leader in argumentative rhetorics, Writing Arguments has proven highly successful in teaching students to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own.

With its student-friendly tone, clear explanations, high-interest readings and examples, and well-sequenced critical thinking and writing assignments, Writing Arguments offers a time-tested approach to argument that is interesting and accessible to students and eminently teachable for instructors.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205665778
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 7/13/2009
  • Series: Ramage/Bean/Johnson Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 1.90 (w) x 0.50 (h) x 7.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Part One Overview of Argument

Chapter 1 Argument: An Introduction

What Do We Mean by Argument?

Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel

Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate

Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit

Louis W. Sullivan, M.D., Let the Facts Decide, Not Fear

The Defining Features of Argument

Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims

Argument Is Both a Process and a Product

Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion

Argument and the Problem of Truth

Chapter 2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring

Finding Issues to Explore

Do Some Initial Brainstorming

Be Open to the Issues All Around You

Explore Ideas by Freewriting

Explore Ideas by Idea-Mapping

Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

Placing Texts in a Rhetorical Context

Genres of Argument

Cultural Contexts: Who Writes Arguments and Why?

Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre

Reading to Believe an Argument’s Claims

John Kavanaugh, Amnesty?

Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe

Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer’s Views

Reading to Doubt

Thinking Dialectically

Questions to Stimulate Dialectic Thinking

Fred Reed, Why Blame Mexico?

Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking

Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or Formal Exploratory Essay

Reading

Michael Banks, Should the United States Grant Legal Status to Undocumented Immigrant Workers?

Part Two Writing Arguments

Chapter 3 The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons

The Classical Structure of Argument

Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument

Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question

How to Identify an Issue Question

Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument

Pseudo-Arguments: Fanatical Believers and Fanatical Skeptics

Another Source of Pseudo-Arguments: Lack of Shared Assumptions

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons

What Is a Reason?

Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses

Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements

Chapter 4 The Logical Structure of Arguments

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an Argument?

Formal Logic Versus Real World Logic

The Role of Assumptions

The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System

Using Toulmin’s Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support

The Power of Audience-Based Reasons

Writing Assignment: Plan for the Details of an Argument

Chapter 5 Using Evidence Effectively

The Persuasive Use of Evidence

Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence

Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence

Kinds of Evidence

Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence

Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision

Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence

Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence

Gathering Evidence

Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence

Gathering Data from Interviews

Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires

Writing Assignment: A Microtheme or “Supporting Reasons” Argument

Carmen Tieu (student),“Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls”

Chapter 6 Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Belief and Emotions

Use Concrete Language

Use Specific Examples and Illustrations

Use Narratives

Choose Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations

Use Images for Emotional Appeal

Examining Visual Arguments: Appeals to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments

How Audience-Based Reasons Enhance Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons

Chapter 7 Responding to Objections and Alternative Views

One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments

Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument

Summarizing Opposing Views

Refuting Opposing Views

Strategies for Rebutting Evidence

Conceding to Opposing Views

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument

Delayed-Thesis Argument

Ellen Goodman, Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance

Rogerian Argument

Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Dialogic Argument Aimed at Conciliation

Readings

David Langley (student), ”Half-Criminals” or Urban Athletes: A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders (A Classical Argument)

Rebekah Taylor (student), A Letter to Jim (A Rogerian Argument)

Part 3 Analyzing Arguments

Chapter 8 Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically

Questions for Rhetorical Analysis

An Illustration of Rhetorical Analysis

Kathryn Jean Lopez, Egg Heads

A Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”

Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis

Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis

Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis

Readings

Ellen Goodman, Womb for Rent–for a Price

Zachary Stumps (student), A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman’s “Wombs for Rent–for a Price”

Chapter 9 Analyzing Visual Arguments

Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument

The Components of Visual Design

An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings

An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images

The Genres of Visual Argument

Posters and Fliers

Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements

Cartoons

Web Pages

Constructing Your Own Visual Argument

Using Information Graphics in Arguments

How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories

Using a Graph to Tell a Story

Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument

Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Poster Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Graphics

Part 4 Arguments in Depth: Five Types of Claims

Chapter 10 An Introduction to the Types of Claims

An Overview of the Types of Claims 000

Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example

Making the Lasik Argument to Parents

Making the Lasik Argument to Insurance Companies

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments

Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments

An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument

Aaron Friedman, “All That Noise for Nothing”

Chapter 11 Definitional Arguments

An Overview of Arguments about Definition

The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way

Types of Definitional Arguments 000

Examining Visual Arguments: A Definitional Claim

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments

Developing the Criteria-Match Structure for a Definitional Argument

Toulmin Framework for a Definitional Argument

Kinds of Definitions

Aristotelian Definitions

Operational Definitions

Conducting the Criteria Part of a Definitional Argument

Approach 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term

Approach 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition

Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument

Writing Assignment: A Definitional Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Definitional Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument

Reading

Kathy Sullivan (student), Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board

Chapter 12 Causal Arguments

An Overview of Causal Arguments

Kinds of Causal Arguments

Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument

Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim

Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another

First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly

Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning

Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments

Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Causal Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument

Reading

Julee Christianson (student), “Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong” (APA-Format Research Paper)

Chapter 13 Resemblance Arguments

An Overview of Resemblance Arguments

Toulmin Framework for a Resemblance Argument

Arguments by Analogy

Using Undeveloped Analogies

Using Extended Analogies

Examining Visual Arguments: A Resemblance Claim

Arguments by Precedent

Writing Assignment: A Resemblance Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Resemblance Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument

Readings

Megan Matthews (student), Whales Need Silence

Clay Bennett, Just Emancipated (editorial cartoon)

Beth Reis, Toon Offensive

Chapter 14 Evaluation and Ethical Arguments

An Overview of Evaluation Arguments

Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations

Toulmin Framework for an Evaluation Argument

Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument

Developing Your Criteria

Making Your Match Argument

Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim

An Overview of Ethical Arguments

Major Ethical Systems

Consequences as the Base of Ethics

Principles as the Base of Ethics

Conducting an Ethical Argument

Constructing a Principles-Based Argument

Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments

Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument

Exploring Ideas

Organizing an Evaluation Argument

Revising Your Draft

Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument

Critiquing an Ethical Argument

Readings

Sam Isaacson (student), Would Legalizing Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?

David Holcberg, Human Organs for Sale?

Chapter 15 Proposal Arguments

An Overview of Proposal Arguments

The Structure of Proposal Arguments

Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument

Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments

Developing a Proposal Argument

Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists

Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal

The Justification: Convincing Your Readers That Your Proposal Should Be Enacted

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements

Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim

Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument

Using the “Stock Issues” Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument

Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Proposal Argument

Designing a One-Page Advocacy Advertisement

Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument

Readings

Juan Vazquez (student), “Why the United States Should Adopt Nuclear Power” (MLA-format research paper)

Appendix One Informal Fallacies

Fallacies of Pathos

Fallacies of Ethos

Fallacies of Logos

Appendix Two A Concise Guide to Finding, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources

Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database

What Is a Licensed Database?

Illustration of a Database Search

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web

Evaluating Sources

Angle of Vision

Degree of Advocacy

Reliability

Credibility

Evaluating Web Sites

Analyzing the Purpose of a Site and Your Own Research Purpose

Sorting Sites by Domain Type

Evaluating a Web Site

Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

Using Sources for Your Own Purposes

Avoiding Plagiarism

Citing Sources in Your Text in MLA Style

Documenting Sources in a “Works Cited” List (MLA)

MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations

Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style

Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper

Citing Sources in Your Text in APA Style

Documenting Sources in a “References” List (APA)

APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations

Student Example of an APA-Style Research Paper

Credits

Index

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