* Denotes selections new to this edition.
All chapters end with "Conclusion."
I. OVERVIEW OF ARGUMENT.
1. Argument: An Introduction.
What Do We Mean by Argument?
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims.
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product.
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion.
Argument and the Problem of Truth.
When Does Argument Become Propaganda?: The Debate between Socrates and Callicles.
What Is Truth? The Place of Argument in Contemporary Life.
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee.
Gordon Adams, Petition to Waive the University Math Requirement (student essay).
2. Reading Arguments.
Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers.
Suggestions for Improving Your Reading Process.
Strategies for Reading Arguments: An Overview.
Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer.
* American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Homepage, Equal Pay by Occupation.
* George F. Will, Lies, Damned Lies,
Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter.
Strategy 3: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement.
* Ellen Goodman, A New Campaign for Pay Equity.
An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Will and Goodman (sample analysis essay).
Strategy 4: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation.
3. Writing Arguments.
Who Writes Arguments and Why?
Learning from the Experts: Tips for Improving Your Process.
UsingExploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking.
Shaping Your Argument: Using Classical Structure as an Initial Guide.
Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking: Two Sets of Exploratory Tasks.
Writing Assignments for Chapters 1-3.
II. PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMENT.
4. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons.
The Rhetorical Triangle.
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument.
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument.
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons.
Application of This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing.
Application of This Chapter's Principles to the Reading of Arguments.
5. The Logical Structure of Arguments.
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the "Logical Structure" of an Argument?
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System.
Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support.
6. Evidence in Argument.
Using Evidence from Personal Experience.
Using Evidence from Interviews, Surveys, and Questionnaires.
Using Evidence from Reading.
Using Numerical Data and Statistics.
Writing Your Own Argument: Using Evidence Persuasively.
Writing Assignments for Chapters 4-6.
* David Langley, "Half-Criminals" or Urban Athletes?: A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders (student essay).
7. Moving Your Audience: Audience-Based Reasons, Ethos and Pathos.
Starting from Your Readers' Beliefs: The Power of Audience- Based Reasons.
Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview.
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility.
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions.
8. Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views.
One-Sided versus Multi-Sided Arguments.
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your View.
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument.
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument.
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed Thesis or Rogerian Argument.
Ellen Goodman, Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance.
Student Essay, Letter to Beth Downey.
Writing Assignments for Chapters 7 and 8.
III. ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: SIX TYPES OF CLAIMS.
9. An Introduction to the Types of Claims.
An Overview of the Types of Claims.
What Is the Value of Studying Claim Types.
10. Categorical and Definition Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Y.
An Overview of Categorical Arguments.
Simple Categorical Arguments.
An Overview of Definitional Arguments.
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments.
Conceptual Problems of Definition.
Kinds of Definitions.
Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument.
Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument.
Organizing a Definitional Argument.
Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument.
* John Leo, Stereotypes No Phantom in New "Star Wars" Movie.
Kathy Sullivan, Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board (student essay).
Writing Assignment for Chapter 10.
11. Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y.
An Overview of Causal Arguments.
The Nature of Causal Arguing.
Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms.
Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another.
Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments.
Organizing a Causal Argument.
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument.
* Daeha Ko, The Monster That Is High School (student essay).
Writing Assignment for Chapter 11.
12. Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y.
An Overview of Resemblance Arguments.
Arguments by Analogy.
Arguments by Precedent.
Organizing a Resemblance Argument.
Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument.
* T.D. Hylton, Don't Fake Sirens (student essay).
* Michael D. Lubrecht, Creeping Loopholism Threatens Our Rights.
Writing Assignment for Chapter 12.
13. Evaluation Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y.
Criteria-Match Structure of Evaluation Arguments.
General Strategy for Evaluation Arguments.
How to Determine Criteria for Your Argument.
Determining Whether X Meets the Criteria.
Organizing an Evaluation Argument.
Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument.
* Pat Inglenook, The Spice Girls: Good at Marketing but Not Good for Their Market (student essay).
Writing Assignment for Chapter 13.
14. Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X.
The Nature of Proposal Arguments.
The General Structure and Strategy of Proposal Arguments.
Special Concerns of Proposal Arguments.
Developing a Proposal Argument.
Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument.
Using the Stock Issues Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument.
Organizing a Proposal Argument.
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument.
Stephen Bean, What Should Be Done about the Mentally Ill Homeless? (student essay).
Writing Assignment for Chapter 14.
15. Ethical Arguments.
Special Difficulties of Ethical Arguments.
An Overview of Major Ethical Systems.
Developing an Ethical Argument.
Testing Ethical Arguments.
* Michael Levin, The Case for Torture.
Appendix 1: Informal Fallacies.
Fallacies of Pathos.
Fallacies of Ethos.
Fallacies of Logos.
Appendix 2: A Concise Guide to Evaluating and Documenting Sources.
How to Avoid Plagiarism.
How to Cite Sources.
How to Provide Bibliographical Data at the End of Your Paper.
Example of a Researched Argument in APA Style.
Lynnea Clark, Women Police Officers: Should Size and Strength Be Critical for Patrol Duty?