Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader and Rhetoric for Academic Writers / Edition 7

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Overview

This rhetoric/anthology instructs college students in how to read academic texts with understanding and how to use them as sources for papers in a variety of disciplines.

In Writing in the Disciplines, Mary Kennedy and William Kennedy emphasize academic writing as ongoing conversations in multiple genres, and do so in the context of WPA Outcomes. The rhetoric chapters teach critical reading, paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting, writing process, synthesizing, analyzing, researching, and developing arguments. The anthology balances journal articles with works by public intellectuals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
An anthology of readings that represent various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines, such as the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences. The point is to help student gain the ability to think critically and reason cogently as the learn the conventions of the different disciplines. Revised from the 1996 edition (first in 1987) with new and sometimes controversial selections on current topics such as rock music, cultural values, and cloning. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205726622
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 7/22/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 640
  • Sales rank: 544,795
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

TO OUR READERS IN APPRECIATION

In preparing the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers, we listened closely to students and instructors who had used the third edition, and we followed their advice. As requested, we reworked the first part of the book. We added a new student essay to Chapter 2, rearranged Chapters 3 and 4, and made extensive revisions to Chapter 5, "Writing Research Papers." We have also made changes to the second half of the book. A number of the readings are new, and in Chapter 12, we have introduced a new topic. To the readers who suggested these changes, we say "thank you" for helping us strengthen this book.

ORGANIZATION AND APPROACH

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers serves two functions. It explains how to use reading sources as idea banks for college papers, and it teaches fundamental academic writing strategies: reading, paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting, organizing, drafting, revising, editing, synthesizing, analyzing, researching, and developing arguments. It also provides an anthology of readings in the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences which contains articles representing various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines. These articles, along with the accompanying instructional apparatus, help develop students' abilities to think critically and reason cogently as they read, compose, and revise. The activities and questions that accompany each reading encourage students to approach academic writing as a process: to preview the source, set reading goals, and ponder thegeneral topic before reading; to annotate the text and think critically while reading; and to reflect on the source and identify information content, form, organization, expository and stylistic features, and rhetorical elements after reading. Students are also shown how to draw on annotations, notes, and preliminary writing to produce first drafts of academic essays and how to revise essays at the drafting stage as well as later in the writing process. Additional activities help students to use ideas from different sources to produce synthesis essays and research papers.

Chapter 1 presents active reading strategies that help students engage the ideas in academic texts and incorporate them in their own writing by paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting. Chapter 2 presents the writing process, including analyzing the assignment, planning, organizing, drafting, revising, and editing. In addition, Chapter 2 examines essay structures, from the introduction and thesis statement through the body of the essay to its conclusion, and teaches students to write essays of response to a source. Chapter 3 focuses on essays that draw on two or more sources, including compare-and-contrast essays and synthesis. Chapter 4 covers essays of argumentation, analysis, and evaluation, with the special attention to literary analysis; and Chapter 5 focuses on library research strategies and writing research papers. In the eight succeeding chapters, we provide forty-seven reading selections. We have organized the anthology in Chapters 6 through 13 by dividing the academic curriculum into three major fields: the natural sciences and technology, the social sciences, and the humanities. Each chapter in Writing in the Disciplines deals with a topic that is widely studied in the field. For example, the social sciences section has chapters on redefining the American family and social class and inequality. The reading selections help students view each topic from a range of perspectives, and they provide diverse views from experts within the discipline and from journalists and specialists in other academic fields. Most of the articles are written for nonspecialized readers, not for majors in particular fields. We believe these articles, from popular as well as scholarly sources, represent the types of readings many professors assign in introductory and lower-level courses. Psychology professors, for instance, know that first-year students cannot interpret most psychological research reports until they acquire a basic knowledge of the discipline and learn its principles of experimental methodology and statistical analysis. However, first-year students can read summaries and analyses of psychological research written for nonspecialists. For Writing in the Disciplines, we chose readings that might appear on a reserve list as supplements to an introductory-level textbook. We make no assumptions about students' prior knowledge. Our intent is to model first-year-level reading assignments, not to exemplify professional standards within the disciplines.

In the introduction to each of the sections, we characterize the field of study with a discussion of its subdisciplines, methodology, logic, and vocabulary. We then describe writing within the field by examining authors' perspectives, goals, organizational patterns, literary devices, and rhetorical styles. We recognize that there is no absolute standard for categorizing intellectual activities. For example, although we have classified history as a discipline within the humanities, we could as well have placed it within the social sciences, depending on the methodology the historians use. Throughout the book, we not only point out overlaps among disciplines but also capitalize on them in synthesis assignments at the end of each chapter. Despite the imprecision of these categories, we believe that important differences in approaches to scholarship and writing do exist among the three main academic areas. Students who understand these differences will read more critically and write more persuasively.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE FOURTH EDITION

In the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines, we have revised the initial section on academic writing. Chapter 2 contains a new student essay. We have moved argumentation from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4, and in Chapter 4 we have collapsed the material on analysis and evaluation. Chapter 5 has changed dramatically in response to advances in computerized information retrieval systems. Chapter 5 also includes a new research paper written in American Psychological Association (APA) style. In the anthology section, Chapter 6 has been revised to focus on the current controversy over human cloning, and Chapter 12 features a new topic, "Rock Music and Cultural Values." We also added new articles and fiction excerpts to Chapters 7 and 8. We continue to accompany each article with activities and questions that promote critical thinking. Each reading is preceded by a prereading activity and followed by groups of questions that encourage students to grasp information and decide what form, organization, and expository features the author uses. Additional questions ask students to analyze rhetorical concerns, such as the context and the author's purpose (Haas and Flower). As in previous editions, several writing assignments accompany each reading and each topically related chapter.

Finally, we have refined and expanded the guide to documentation and the comparison of the MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA styles in the Appendix.

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Writing in the Disciplines provides a series of collaborative learning activities that require students to work together in groups to clarify and extend their understanding of material presented in Chapters 1 through 5. We have constructed pairs of individual and collaborative exercises for each chapter subsection, so for any particular concept, instructors may assign out-of-class work and follow with in-class collaborative activities. Some instructors may use the collaborative exercises to emphasize points they or their students deem particularly important or problematic.

It is important to prepare students for group work by teaching them the collaborative skills they need in order to work together—requisite social skills, group dynamics, methods of interaction, and strategies for learning from each other as well as from the teacher. Some instructors pair off students at first. Then, when they move the students into groups, they give them time to become acquainted. Another technique is to redefine the groups frequently until everyone in the class has gotten to know each other.

Each of the collaborative exercises in this textbook requires students to divide into work groups. Experiment with different ways of grouping students together. You might allow them to choose their groups, or you might assign them to groups on the basis of working style, personality types, or role. We have found Kenneth Bruffee's methods for conducting collaborative learning groups particularly useful (28-51). The following procedure, which draws heavily on Bruffee's Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, is applicable to all the collaborative exercises in this textbook.

WORKING IN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING GROUPS

  1. Students form groups of five or six by counting off. (Bruffee maintains that groups of five are particularly effective for collaborative activities.)
  2. Each group selects a recorder who will write down the results of the group's deliberation and will eventually report to the entire class.
  3. Each group selects a reader who then reads the collaborative task from the textbook.
  4. Group members attempt to achieve a consensus on the question or issue posed by the collaborative task. All viewpoints should be heard and considered. (Bruffee recommends that instructors refrain from taking part in or monitoring collaborative learning groups. He believes that teacher interference in groups "inevitably destroys peer relations among students and encourages the tendency of well-schooled students to focus on the teacher's authority and interests" 291.)
  5. When a consensus is reached, the recorder reads her or his notes back to the group, and they are revised to make sure they reflect the group's decision. Differences of opinion are also included in the notes.
  6. When all groups have completed the assignment, recorders read their notes to the entire class. The instructor may choose to summarize each group's report on the chalkboard. A discussion involving the entire class may follow.

Other methods of forming and conducting collaborative learning groups will also work with the exercises in Chapters 1 through 5. Although we have had success with Bruffee's technique, we encourage instructors to pick the methods that work best for them and their students. The following resources will be helpful:

Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: NCTLA, 1992.

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson, Karl A. Smith, and E. Holubec. Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction, 1993.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again, in the fourth edition we have relied on the work of many researchers and scholars in composition and reading. We are particularly grateful to Ann Brown, Kenneth Bruffee, Linda Flower, Christina Haas, John Hayes, and Bonnie Meyer. We used pilot versions of Writing in the Disciplines in first-year-level writing courses at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and SUNY at Cortland, and we are indebted to our students for their comments and suggestions. Liam and Maura Kennedy deserve special thanks for their important contributions to Chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hadley Smith would like to acknowledge David Flanagan's and Marlene Kobre's suggestions for articles for Chapters 6, 7, and 8 as well as their collegiality over the years.

At Prentice Hall, Senior English Acquisitions Editor Leah Jewell supervised our project with skill and professionalism. We also appreciate the assistance we received from Company President Phil Miller, and Editorial Assistant Patricia Castiglione. Special thanks to our Senior Production Editor Shelly Kupperman for her expert work and to our meticulous copy editor Diane Garvey Nesin. We are indebted to our reviewers who contributed their ideas and insightful analysis: Jia-Yi Cheng-Levine, Indiana University of PA; Jean H. Wilson, Indiana University of PA; Patricia Coward, Frostburg State University; Phillip Sipiora, University of South Florida; James Allen, College of DuPage; Charles Baker, Indiana University of PA; Chad Beck, North Carolina State University; Peter Stokes, Tufts University; Alma G. Bryant, University of South Florida.

Finally, we are grateful to Liam and Maura Kennedy, Nancy Siegele, and Annie, Colin, and Timm Smith for their patience, support, and understanding.

Mary Lynch Kennedy
William J. Kennedy
Hadley M. Smith

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

Contents

Preface

Part I: Reading and Writing in the Academic Disciplines

Chapter 1: Active Critical Reading

Academic Reading-Writing Process

Conversation with the Texts

Active Critical Reading

Keeping a Writer’s Notebook

Prereading

Preview the Text and Ask Questions that Will Help You Set Goals for Close Reading

Use Freewriting and Brainstorming to Recall Your Prior Knowledge and Express Your Feelings about the Reading

Topic

Close Reading

Mark, Annotate, and Elaborate on the Text

Take Effective Notes

Pose and Answer Questions about the Text

Reading for Genre, Organization, and Stylistic Features

Genre

Organization

Stylistic Features

Rhetorical Context of Text

Rhetorical Context of Your Reading

Analyze Writing Assignments

Chapter 2: Responses, Paraphrases, Summaries, and Quotations

Write an Informal Response

Convert Informal Response to Response Essay

Paraphrase

Summarize

Quote

Altering Quotations

Weaving Quotations into Your Essay

Chapter 3: Critical Analysis

Part I: Critical Analysis

Focus of the Chapter

Adopting a Questioning Frame of Mind

Types of Analyses You Will Be Asked to Write

Importance of Genre Knowledge

Approaches to Analysis

Purpose of Critical Analysis

Critical Analysis and the Academic Conversation

*Examination of “Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Role of Robots for Childcare Applications,” by David Feil-Seifer and Maja

J. Mataric’s Critical Analysis of Noel Sharkey and Amanda Sharkey’s, “The Crying Shame of Robot Nannies: An

Ethical Appraisal”

Part II: Writing a Critical Analysis: A Detailed Demonstration of Reading-Writing Process

Critical Reading

Planning

Drafting

Revising the Preliminary Draft

Editing

Student’s Critical Analysis Essay: Final Draft

Chapter 4: Literary Analysis and Comparative Analysis

Literary Analysis

Process of Writing a Literary Analysis

Comparative Analysis

Incorporate Comparative Analysis into Longer Essays

Stand-Alone Comparative Analysis of Texts

Process of Writing a Comparative Analysis of Texts

Sample Comparative Analysis Essay

A Brief Word About Other Types of Analysis Essays

Rhetorical Analysis

Process Analysis

Casual Analysis

Chapter 5: Visual Analysis

Principles of Visual Analysis

Portfolio of Photographs

Overview of Visual Analysis

Process of Writing a Visual Analysis Essay

Previewing

Viewing for Content

Viewing for Genre, Organization, and Stylistic Features

Viewing for Rhetorical Context

Chapter 6: Synthesis

Analysis and Synthesis

Process of Writing Synthesis Essays

Examine the Assignment

Determine Your Rhetorical Purpose: Purposes for Synthesizing Sources

Ask Questions to Identify Relationships among the Sources

Formulate a Thesis and Review the Texts

Process of Writing an Exploratory Synthesis

Decide on Rhetorical Purpose

Formulate Working Thesis

Process of Writing a Literature Review

*Examination of “Adolescents’ Expressed Meanings of Music In and Out of School”: Patricia Shehard Campbell, Claire Connell, and Amy Beegle’s Literature Review

Organize the Literature Review to Focus on Ideas Rather than Sources

Process of Writing a Thesis-Driven Synthesis

Support Thesis with Evidence

Examination of Student’s Thesis-Drive Synthesis

Revising Synthesis Essays

Chapter 7: Argument

Nature of Academic Argument

Argument in a Broad Sense and Argument in a Specialized Sense

Specialized Argument Expressed as Statement vs. Specialized Argument Synthesized with Sources

Developing Support for Arguments

Joining the Academic Conversation

*Examination of “Predators or Plowshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons,” Robert Sparrow’s Argument Synthesis

Process of Writing an Argument Synthesis Essay

Differentiate Between Issues and Topics

Differentiate Between Claims and Evidence

Differentiate Between Opinions and Reasons

Probe Both Sides of the Issue

Question the Reading Sources

State Your Claim

Support Reasons with Evidence from Reading Sources

Acknowledge and Respond to Competing Claims

Illustration of Student’s Process in Writing an Argument Synthesis Essay

Consider Audience

Determine Issue, Thesis, and Competing Positions

Organize Argument Synthesis Essays

Acknowledge and Respond to Alternative views in Separate, Self-Contained Sections

Acknowledge and respond to Objections in a Point-by-Point Fashion

Revising and Editing

Chapter 8: Writing Research Papers

The Research Paper: An Introduction

Identify a Research Topic: The Role of the Assignment

Illustration of a Student’s Process of Writing a Research Paper

Select a Research Topic

Develop a Research Strategy

Set a Schedule

Brainstorm a Preliminary Search Vocabulary

Determine How You Will Find the Sources

Locate Sources in an Academic Library

Use Catalogues to Find Books

Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC)

Library of Congress and OCLC World Cat

Bibliographic Details for Electronic Sources

A Word About Electronic Retrieval Systems

Types of Searches

Conduct Research on the World Wide Web

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Web

Advantages of College Libraries

Find Digital Resources on the Web

How to Increase the Precision of Your Web Search

Evaluate What You Find

Which Articles Are the Most Important

How to Evaluate Web Sources

Evaluate Information Sources

Collect Information on Your Own

Modify Your Search Strategy

Excerpt Information from Sources and Cite What You Find Using a Standard Format

Formulate a Working Thesis

Planning the Research Paper

Select an Organizational Plan

Outline

Write from Your Outline

Revising

Part II: An Anthology of Readings

Natural Sciences and Technology

Chapter 9: Who Owns Your Body?

*“Who Owns Your Body Parts?” by Kerry Howley

*“Donors Have No Rights to Donated Tissue” by Kristine E. Schleiter, JD, LLM

*“The Trouble with Organ Trafficking,” by Arthur Caplan

*“Why We Need a Market for Human Organs,” by Sally Satel

*“The Gendered Language of Gamete ‘Donation’,” by Caroline Rubin

Chapter 10: Human/Machine Interaction

*“Humanoid and Android Science,” by Hiroshi Ishiguro and Minoru Asada

*“Looking Forward to Sociable Robots,” by Glenda Shaw-Garlock

*“The Ethical Frontier of Robotics,” by Noel Sharkey

*“The Way Forward in the World of Robotics,” Kenneth W. Goodman and Norman G. Einspruch

Chapter 11: Privacy and Technology

*“I Just Called to Say I Love You,” by Jonathan Franzen

“Kyllo v. United States: Technology v. Individual Privacy,” by Thomas Colbridge

*“The Anonymity Experiment,” by Catherine Price

“Trading Liberties for Illusions,” by Wendy Kaminer

*“If Looks Could Kill,” The Economist

Social Sciences

Chapter 12: The Changing American Family

“What Is a Family,” by Pauline Irit Erera

“Children of Gay Fathers,” by Robert L. Barret and Bryan E. Robinson

“Cohabitation Instead of Marriage,” by James Q. Wilson

*“The Origins of the Ambivalent Acceptance of Divorce,” by Andrew J. Oberlin

“Absent Fathers: Why Don’t We Ever Talk about the Unmarried Men?” by Rebecca M. Blank

*“The Ballad of a Single Mother,” by Lynn Olcott

Chapter 13: Social Class and Inequality

“Born Poor and Smart,” by Angela Locke

*“Culture of Success,” by Brink Lindsey

“The War Against the Poor Instead of Programs to End Poverty,” by Herbert J. Gans

*“The Inequality Challenge,” by Matt Yglesias

“Serving in Florida,” by Barbara Ehrenreich

“Middle of the Class,” The Economist

“When Shelter Feels Like a Prison,” by Charmion Browne

Humanities

Chapter 14: Rock Music and Cultural Values

“Toward an Aesthetic of Popular Music,” by Simon Frith

*“Music and Morality,” by Roger Scruton

“Redeeming the Rap Experience,” Venise Berry

*“Digital Music: You Are What You Listen To,” by Lane Jennings

*“Of Ipods and Dirty Underwear,” by James Rosen

Chapter 15: Stories of Ethnic Difference

“A Different Mirror,” by Ronald Takaki

“Jasmine,” by Bharati Mukherjee

“Snapshots,” by Helena Maria Viramontes

“Between the Pool and the Gardenias,” Edwidge Danticat

“Bohemians,” by George Saunders

Chapter 16: Three Visual Portfolios

Portfolio 1: Images of Families

Portfolio 2: Images of Inequality

Portfolio 3: Images of Ethnic Diversity

Appendix: Documenting Sources

Index

Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

TO OUR READERS IN APPRECIATION

In preparing the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers, we listened closely to students and instructors who had used the third edition, and we followed their advice. As requested, we reworked the first part of the book. We added a new student essay to Chapter 2, rearranged Chapters 3 and 4, and made extensive revisions to Chapter 5, "Writing Research Papers." We have also made changes to the second half of the book. A number of the readings are new, and in Chapter 12, we have introduced a new topic. To the readers who suggested these changes, we say "thank you" for helping us strengthen this book.

ORGANIZATION AND APPROACH

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers serves two functions. It explains how to use reading sources as idea banks for college papers, and it teaches fundamental academic writing strategies: reading, paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting, organizing, drafting, revising, editing, synthesizing, analyzing, researching, and developing arguments. It also provides an anthology of readings in the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences which contains articles representing various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines. These articles, along with the accompanying instructional apparatus, help develop students' abilities to think critically and reason cogently as they read, compose, and revise. The activities and questions that accompany each reading encourage students to approach academic writing as a process: to preview the source, set reading goals, and ponderthegeneral topic before reading; to annotate the text and think critically while reading; and to reflect on the source and identify information content, form, organization, expository and stylistic features, and rhetorical elements after reading. Students are also shown how to draw on annotations, notes, and preliminary writing to produce first drafts of academic essays and how to revise essays at the drafting stage as well as later in the writing process. Additional activities help students to use ideas from different sources to produce synthesis essays and research papers.

Chapter 1 presents active reading strategies that help students engage the ideas in academic texts and incorporate them in their own writing by paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting. Chapter 2 presents the writing process, including analyzing the assignment, planning, organizing, drafting, revising, and editing. In addition, Chapter 2 examines essay structures, from the introduction and thesis statement through the body of the essay to its conclusion, and teaches students to write essays of response to a source. Chapter 3 focuses on essays that draw on two or more sources, including compare-and-contrast essays and synthesis. Chapter 4 covers essays of argumentation, analysis, and evaluation, with the special attention to literary analysis; and Chapter 5 focuses on library research strategies and writing research papers. In the eight succeeding chapters, we provide forty-seven reading selections. We have organized the anthology in Chapters 6 through 13 by dividing the academic curriculum into three major fields: the natural sciences and technology, the social sciences, and the humanities. Each chapter in Writing in the Disciplines deals with a topic that is widely studied in the field. For example, the social sciences section has chapters on redefining the American family and social class and inequality. The reading selections help students view each topic from a range of perspectives, and they provide diverse views from experts within the discipline and from journalists and specialists in other academic fields. Most of the articles are written for nonspecialized readers, not for majors in particular fields. We believe these articles, from popular as well as scholarly sources, represent the types of readings many professors assign in introductory and lower-level courses. Psychology professors, for instance, know that first-year students cannot interpret most psychological research reports until they acquire a basic knowledge of the discipline and learn its principles of experimental methodology and statistical analysis. However, first-year students can read summaries and analyses of psychological research written for nonspecialists. For Writing in the Disciplines, we chose readings that might appear on a reserve list as supplements to an introductory-level textbook. We make no assumptions about students' prior knowledge. Our intent is to model first-year-level reading assignments, not to exemplify professional standards within the disciplines.

In the introduction to each of the sections, we characterize the field of study with a discussion of its subdisciplines, methodology, logic, and vocabulary. We then describe writing within the field by examining authors' perspectives, goals, organizational patterns, literary devices, and rhetorical styles. We recognize that there is no absolute standard for categorizing intellectual activities. For example, although we have classified history as a discipline within the humanities, we could as well have placed it within the social sciences, depending on the methodology the historians use. Throughout the book, we not only point out overlaps among disciplines but also capitalize on them in synthesis assignments at the end of each chapter. Despite the imprecision of these categories, we believe that important differences in approaches to scholarship and writing do exist among the three main academic areas. Students who understand these differences will read more critically and write more persuasively.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE FOURTH EDITION

In the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines, we have revised the initial section on academic writing. Chapter 2 contains a new student essay. We have moved argumentation from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4, and in Chapter 4 we have collapsed the material on analysis and evaluation. Chapter 5 has changed dramatically in response to advances in computerized information retrieval systems. Chapter 5 also includes a new research paper written in American Psychological Association (APA) style. In the anthology section, Chapter 6 has been revised to focus on the current controversy over human cloning, and Chapter 12 features a new topic, "Rock Music and Cultural Values." We also added new articles and fiction excerpts to Chapters 7 and 8. We continue to accompany each article with activities and questions that promote critical thinking. Each reading is preceded by a prereading activity and followed by groups of questions that encourage students to grasp information and decide what form, organization, and expository features the author uses. Additional questions ask students to analyze rhetorical concerns, such as the context and the author's purpose (Haas and Flower). As in previous editions, several writing assignments accompany each reading and each topically related chapter.

Finally, we have refined and expanded the guide to documentation and the comparison of the MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA styles in the Appendix.

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Writing in the Disciplines provides a series of collaborative learning activities that require students to work together in groups to clarify and extend their understanding of material presented in Chapters 1 through 5. We have constructed pairs of individual and collaborative exercises for each chapter subsection, so for any particular concept, instructors may assign out-of-class work and follow with in-class collaborative activities. Some instructors may use the collaborative exercises to emphasize points they or their students deem particularly important or problematic.

It is important to prepare students for group work by teaching them the collaborative skills they need in order to work together—requisite social skills, group dynamics, methods of interaction, and strategies for learning from each other as well as from the teacher. Some instructors pair off students at first. Then, when they move the students into groups, they give them time to become acquainted. Another technique is to redefine the groups frequently until everyone in the class has gotten to know each other.

Each of the collaborative exercises in this textbook requires students to divide into work groups. Experiment with different ways of grouping students together. You might allow them to choose their groups, or you might assign them to groups on the basis of working style, personality types, or role. We have found Kenneth Bruffee's methods for conducting collaborative learning groups particularly useful (28-51). The following procedure, which draws heavily on Bruffee's Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, is applicable to all the collaborative exercises in this textbook.

WORKING IN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING GROUPS

  1. Students form groups of five or six by counting off. (Bruffee maintains that groups of five are particularly effective for collaborative activities.)
  2. Each group selects a recorder who will write down the results of the group's deliberation and will eventually report to the entire class.
  3. Each group selects a reader who then reads the collaborative task from the textbook.
  4. Group members attempt to achieve a consensus on the question or issue posed by the collaborative task. All viewpoints should be heard and considered. (Bruffee recommends that instructors refrain from taking part in or monitoring collaborative learning groups. He believes that teacher interference in groups "inevitably destroys peer relations among students and encourages the tendency of well-schooled students to focus on the teacher's authority and interests" 291.)
  5. When a consensus is reached, the recorder reads her or his notes back to the group, and they are revised to make sure they reflect the group's decision. Differences of opinion are also included in the notes.
  6. When all groups have completed the assignment, recorders read their notes to the entire class. The instructor may choose to summarize each group's report on the chalkboard. A discussion involving the entire class may follow.

Other methods of forming and conducting collaborative learning groups will also work with the exercises in Chapters 1 through 5. Although we have had success with Bruffee's technique, we encourage instructors to pick the methods that work best for them and their students. The following resources will be helpful:

Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: NCTLA, 1992.

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson, Karl A. Smith, and E. Holubec. Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction, 1993.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again, in the fourth edition we have relied on the work of many researchers and scholars in composition and reading. We are particularly grateful to Ann Brown, Kenneth Bruffee, Linda Flower, Christina Haas, John Hayes, and Bonnie Meyer. We used pilot versions of Writing in the Disciplines in first-year-level writing courses at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and SUNY at Cortland, and we are indebted to our students for their comments and suggestions. Liam and Maura Kennedy deserve special thanks for their important contributions to Chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hadley Smith would like to acknowledge David Flanagan's and Marlene Kobre's suggestions for articles for Chapters 6, 7, and 8 as well as their collegiality over the years.

At Prentice Hall, Senior English Acquisitions Editor Leah Jewell supervised our project with skill and professionalism. We also appreciate the assistance we received from Company President Phil Miller, and Editorial Assistant Patricia Castiglione. Special thanks to our Senior Production Editor Shelly Kupperman for her expert work and to our meticulous copy editor Diane Garvey Nesin. We are indebted to our reviewers who contributed their ideas and insightful analysis: Jia-Yi Cheng-Levine, Indiana University of PA; Jean H. Wilson, Indiana University of PA; Patricia Coward, Frostburg State University; Phillip Sipiora, University of South Florida; James Allen, College of DuPage; Charles Baker, Indiana University of PA; Chad Beck, North Carolina State University; Peter Stokes, Tufts University; Alma G. Bryant, University of South Florida.

Finally, we are grateful to Liam and Maura Kennedy, Nancy Siegele, and Annie, Colin, and Timm Smith for their patience, support, and understanding.

Mary Lynch Kennedy
William J. Kennedy
Hadley M. Smith

Read More Show Less

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