Writing Logically, Thinking Critically / Edition 7

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Overview

This concise, accessible text teaches students how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others.

Integrating writing skills with critical thinking skills, this practical book teaches students to draw logical inferences, identify premises and conclusions and use language precisely. Students also learn how to identify fallacies and to distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. Ideal for any composition class that emphasizes argument, this text includes coverage of writing style and rhetoric, logic, literature, research and documentation.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205119127
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 11/2/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 116,618
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Guide to Readings

Preface

CHAPTER 1

Thinking and Writing—A Critical Connection

Thinking Made Visible

Critical Thinking

AN OPEN MIND—EXAMINING YOUR WORLD VIEW

Writing as a Process

INVENTION STRATEGIES—GENERATING IDEAS

THE FIRST DRAFT

THE TIME TO BE CRITICAL

Audience and Purpose

E-MAIL AND TEXT MESSAGING

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 1 Considering Your Audience and Purpose

Reason, Intuition, Imagination, and Metaphor

REASONING BY ANALOGY

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 2

Inference—Critical Thought

What Is an Inference?

HOW RELIABLE IS AN INFERENCE?

What Is a Fact?

RELIABILITY OF FACTS IN A CHANGING WORLD

What Is a Judgment?

Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Facts

FACTS ONLY

INFERENCES ONLY

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 2 Reconstructing the Lost Tribe

Reading Critically

Making Inferences—Writing About Fiction

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3 Interpreting Fiction

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4 Analyzing Fiction

Making Inferences—Analyzing Images

PERSUADING WITH VISUAL IMAGES

EXAMINING ADS

the smoking campaign

vidual images and the law

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 3

The Structure of Argument

Premises and Conclusions

Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusions

Standard Form

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 5 Creating a Political Handout

Ambiguous Argument Structure

Hidden Assumptions in Argument

DANGERS OF HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS

HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS AND STANDARD FORM

HIDDEN ASSUMPTIONS AND AUDIENCE AWARENESS

Summaries

STRATEGIES FOR WRITING A SUMMARY

AN EXAMPLE OF A SUMMARY

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 6 Summarizing an Article

Argument and Explanation—Distinctions

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 4

Written Argument

Focusing Your Topic

THE ISSUE

THE QUESTION AT ISSUE

THE THESIS

Shaping a Written Argument—Rhetorical Strategies

THE INTRODUCTION

THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUR ARGUMENT

HOW MANY PREMISES SHOULD AN ARGUMENT HAVE?

THE CONCLUSION

A Dialectical Approach to Argument

ADDRESSING COUNTERARGUMENTS

HOW MUCH COUNTERARGUMENT?

REFUTATION AND CONCESSION

ROGERIAN STRATEGY

WHEN THERE IS NO OTHER SIDE

Logical Connections—Coherence

JOINING WORDS

MORE ON COHERENCE

Sample Essays

A Two-Step Process for Writing a Complete Argument

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 7 Arguing Both Sides of an Issue

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 8 Taking a Stand

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 5

The Language of Argument—Definition

Definition and Perception

who controls the definitions?

DEFINING OURSELVES

SHIFTING DEFINITIONS

DEFINITION: THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND GOVERNMENT

Language: An Abstract System of Symbols

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONCRETE EXAMPLES

ABSTRACTIONS AND EVASION

EUPHEMISM AND CONNOTATION

Definition in Written Argument

APPOSITIVES—A STRATEGY FOR DEFINING TERMS WITHIN THE SENTENCE

APPOSITIVES AND ARGUMENT

PUNCTUATION OF APPOSITIVES

EXTENDED DEFINITION

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 9 Composing an Argument Based on a Definition

Inventing a New Word to Fill a Need

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 10 Creating a New Word

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 6

Fallacious Arguments

What Is a Fallacious Argument?

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

APPEAL TO FEAR

APPEAL TO PITY

BEGGING THE QUESTION

DOUBLE STANDARD

EQUIVOCATION

FALSE ANALOGY

FALSE CAUSE

FALSE DILEMMA

HASTY GENERALIZATION

PERSONAL ATTACK

POISONING THE WELL

RED HERRING

SLIPPERY SLOPE

STRAW MAN

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 11 Analyzing an Extended Argument

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 7

Deductive and Inductive Argument

Key Distinctions

(1) NECESSITY VERSUS PROBABILITY

(2) FROM GENERAL TO SPECIFIC, SPECIFIC TO GENERAL

The Relationship Between Induction and Deduction

Deductive Reasoning

CLASS LOGIC

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLASSES

INCLUSION

EXCLUSION

OVERLAP

CLASS LOGIC AND THE SYLLOGISM

THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE

TRUTH, VALIDITY, AND SOUNDNESS

GUILT BY ASSOCIATION

MORE ON SYLLOGISMS

Hypothetical Arguments

THE VALID HYPOTHETICAL ARGUMENT

THE INVALID HYPOTHETICAL ARGUMENT

NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS

HYPOTHETICAL CHAINS

HYPOTHETICAL CLAIMS AND EVERYDAY REASONING

Inductive Reasoning

GENERALIZATION

THE DIRECTION OF INDUCTIVE REASONING

TESTING INDUCTIVE GENERALIZATIONS

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING STATISTICAL GENERALIZATIONS

HASTY GENERALIZATIONS

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS

MISTAKING CORRELATION FOR CAUSATION

EPIDEMIOLOGY

CONSIDERING THE SOURCE

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 12 Questioning Generalizations

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 13 Conducting a Survey: A Collaborative Project

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

CHAPTER 8

The Language of Argument—Style

Parallelism

THE STRUCTURE OF PARALLELISM

LOGIC OF THE PARALLEL SERIES

EMPHASIZING IDEAS WITH PARALLELISM

Sharpening Sentences, Eliminating Wordiness

CONCRETE SUBJECTS

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VERBS

PASSIVE VERBS AND EVASION

WHEN THE PASSIVE IS APPROPRIATE

CONSISTENT SENTENCE SUBJECTS

SUMMARY

KEY TERMS

Revision: A Checklist

A Quick Guide to Evaluating Sources and Integrating Research into Your Own Writing

Where to Begin

Evaluating Online Sources

Checking for Bias

Three Options for Including Research

Blend Quotations and Paraphrases into Your Own Writing

MAKE THE PURPOSE CLEAR

PUNCTUATION AND FORMAT OF QUOTATIONS

OMITTING WORDS FROM A DIRECT QUOTATION—ELLIPSIS

Plagiarism

A Final Note

Additional Readings

“The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage,” Ted Olsen

“You Are What You Speak,” Guy Deutscher

“The Order of Things,” Malcolm Gladwell

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