Writing Logically, Thinking Critically / Edition 6

Writing Logically, Thinking Critically / Edition 6

by Sheila Cooper, Rosemary Patton
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0205668569

ISBN-13: 9780205668564

Pub. Date: 07/06/2009

Publisher: Longman

This concise, accessible text teaches how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others.

Overview

This concise, accessible text teaches how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205668564
Publisher:
Longman
Publication date:
07/06/2009
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
256
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Guide to Readings xii

Preface xiv

Chapter 1 Thinking and Writing-A Critical Connection 1

Thinking Made Visible 1

Critical Thinking 2

An Open Mind-Examining Your World View 3

Critical Thinking as Self-Defense-Media Literacy 6

Writing as a Process 10

Invention Strategies-Generating Ideas 11

The First Draft 12

The Time to Be Critical 13

Audience and Purpose 14

Writing Assignment 1 Considering Your Audience and Purpose 15

E-Mail and Text Messaging 15

Reason, Intuition, Imagination, and Metaphor 17

Summary 20

Key Terms 21

Chapter 2 Inference-Critical Thought 22

What Is an Inference? 22

How Reliable is an Inference? 23

What Is a Fact? 24

Facts and Journalism 25

What Is a Judgment? 26

Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Facts 31

Facts only 32

Inferences Only 33

Reading Critically 34

Writing Assignment 2 Reconstructing the Lost Tribe 35

Making Inferences-Analyzing Images 37

Examining An Ad 41

Making Inferences-Writing About Fiction 44

Writing Assignment 3 Interpreting Fiction 46

Writing Assignment 4 Analyzing Fiction 48

Summary 52

Key Terms 52

Chapter 3 The Structure of Argument 53

Premises and Conclusions 54

Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusions 55

Standard Form 56

Writing Assignment 5 Creating a Political Handout 59

Ambiguous Argument Structure 60

Hidden Assumptions in Argument 62

Dangers of Hidden Assumptions 64

Hidden Assumptions and Standard Form 65

Hidden Assumptions and Audience Awareness 68

Summaries 69

Strategies for Writing A Summary 69

An Example of a Summary 70

Writing Assignment 6 Summarizing an Article 70

Argument and Explanation-Distinctions 72

Summary 75

Key Terms75

Chapter 4 Written Argument 77

Focusing Your Topic 77

The Issue 77

The Question at Issue 78

The Thesis 79

Two Kinds of Thesis Statements 81

Shaping a Written Argument-Rhetorical Strategies 82

The Introduction 82

The Development of Your Argument 83

How Many Premises Should an Argument Have? 84

The Conclusion 84

A Dialectical Approach to Argument 85

Addressing Counterarguments 85

How Much Counterargument? 86

Refutation and Concession 86

Rogerian Strategy 87

When There is No Other Side 90

Logical Connections-Coherence 91

Joining Words 91

More on Coherence 93

Sample Essays 93

A Two-Step Process for Writing a Complete Argument 98

Writing Assignment 7 Arguing Both Sides of an Issue 98

Writing Assignment 8 Taking a Stand 102

Summary 103

Key Terms 103

Chapter 5 The Language of Argument-Definition 104

Definition and Perception 104

Who Controls the Definitions? 104

Defining Ourselves 105

Shifting Definitions 106

Definition: The Social Sciences and Government 108

Language: An Abstract System of Symbols 108

The Importance of Concrete Examples 111

Abstractions and Evasion 114

Euphemism and Connotation 115

Definition in Written Argument 116

Appositives-A Strategy for Defining Terms Within the Sentence 116

Appositives and Argument 118

Punctuation of Appositives 118

Extended Definition 120

Writing Assignment 9 Determining Your State's Position on Gay Marriage 123

Writing Assignment 10 Composing an Argument Based on a Definition 124

Inventing a New Word to Fill a Need 128

Writing Assignment 11 Creating a New Word 129

Summary 130

Key Terms 130

Chapter 6 Fallacious Arguments 131

What Is a Fallacious Argument? 131

Appeal to Authority 132

Appeal to Fear 133

Appeal to Pity 133

Begging the Question 134

Double Standard 135

Equivocation 136

False Analogy 137

False Cause 139

False Dilemma 140

Hasty Generalization 141

Personal Attack 141

Poisoning the Well 142

Red Herring 142

Slippery Slope 143

Straw Man 143

Writing Assignment 12 Analyzing an Extended Argument 151

Key Terms 154

Chapter 7 Deductive and Inductive Argument 157

Key Distinctions 157

(1) Necessity Versus Probability 157

(2) From General to Specific, Specific To General 158

The Relationship Between Induction and Deduction 159

Deductive Reasoning 164

Class Logic 164

Relationships Between Classes 165

Inclusion 165

Exclusion 166

Overlap 166

Class Logic and the Syllogism 168

The Subject and the Predicate 169

Truth, Validity, and Soundness 169

Guilt By Association 171

More on Syllogisms 172

Hypothetical Arguments 176

The Valid Hypothetical Argument 176

The Invalid Hypothetical Argument 177

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 177

Hypothetical Chains 178

Hypothetical Claims and Everyday Reasoning 179

Inductive Reasoning 183

Generalization 183

The Direction of Inductive Reasoning 184

Testing Inductive Generalizations 185

Criteria for Evaluating Statistical Generalizations 185

Hasty Generalizations 187

Thinking Critically About Surveys and Statistics 188

Mistaking Correlation for Causation 189

Epidemiology 190

Considering the Source 191

Writing Assignment 13 Questioning Generalizations 196

Writing Assignment 14 Conducting a Survey: A Collaborative Project 196

Summary 197

Key Terms 198

Chapter 8 The Language of Argument-Style 200

Parallelism 200

The Structure of Parallelism 200

Logic of the Parallel Series 202

Emphasizing Ideas with Parallelism 203

Sharpening Sentences, Eliminating Wordiness 204

Concrete Subjects 205

Active and Passive Verbs 205

Passive Verbs and Evasion 206

When the Passive is Appropriate 206

Consistent Sentence Subjects 207

Summary 209

Key Terms 209

A Quick Guide to Integrating Research into your Own Writing 210

Where to Begin 210

Three Options for Including Research 211

Blend Quotations and Paraphrases Into Your Own Writing 211

Make the Purpose Clear 212

Punctuation and Format of Quotations 212

Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation-Ellipsis 213

Plagiarism 213

Additional Readings 215

"Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Nicholas Carr 215

"Blinded by Science," Chris Mooney 223

"When Human Rights Extend to Nonhumans," Donald G. McNeil Jr. 231

Text Credits 234

Index 236

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