Writing Logically Thinking Critically with Readings / Edition 1

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Overview

Writing Logically, Thinking Critically with Readings shows readers how to analyze and evaluate the arguments of others and to construct logical arguments on their own. Writing Logically, Thinking Critically with Readings enables its readers to write in all disciplines, to choose wisely as voters and consumers, and to advocate their own ideas. This edition combines the time tested, original guide to reasoning and writing, with selected contemporary readings that demand critical thought. Readings include five sections focused on the broad issues of: First Amendment Rights, Bioethics, Sexual Harassment, Romance and Marriage, and Language and Meaning. This issues and readings were chosen for their quality of writing and diverse points of view, serving to prompt writing, discussion, and the development of informed, critical opinions. For anyone interested in developing critical thinking and writing skills.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321038036
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 12/13/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 768
  • Product dimensions: 6.22 (w) x 9.13 (h) x 1.73 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface.

PART I. THE RHETORIC.

1. Thinking and Writing-A Critical Connection.
Thinking Made Visible.
The Power of Writing Persuasively.
Our Multicultural Society.
Critical Thinking.
Critical Thinking as Self-Defense.
An Open Mind-Examining Your Worldview.
Profile of a Critical Thinker.
Reason, Intuition, and Imagination.
Audience and Purpose.
Writing as a Process.
Strategies for Generating Ideas.
The First Draft.
The Time To Be Critical.
One Writer's Process.
He Or She?
What You Can Expect from This Book.
More Than One Approach.
Collaboration.
Sharpening Sentence Skills.
Enjoying The Challenge Of Thinking And Writing.

2. Inference - Critical Thought.
What Is An Inference?
How Reliable Is An Inference.
What Is a Fact?
Facts and Journalism.
What Is a Judgement?
Application to Writing.
Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Facts.
Facts Only.
Selecting Facts.
Inferences Only.
Reading Critically.
Making Inferences-Writing About Fiction.
Summary.
Key Terms.

3. The Structure of Argument.
Premises and Conclusions.
Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusions.
Standard Form.
Ambiguous Argument Structure.
Argument and Explanation-Distinctions.
Application to Writing.
Argument Structure, Logical Essay Organization, and Revision.
Summaries.
Strategies for Writing a Summary.
Logical Relationships Between Ideas-Joining Words.
Choice of Joining Words.
Revising For Coherence.
Hidden Assumptions in Argument.
Dangers of Hidden Assumptions.
Hidden Assumptions and Standard Form.
Hidden Assumptions and Audience Awareness.

4. Written Argument.
Focusing Your Topic.
The Issue.
The Question at Issue.
The Thesis.
Two Kinds of Thesis Statement.
Shaping a Written Argument-Rhetorical Strategies.
The Introduction.
The Development of Your Argument.
How Many Premises Should An Argument Have?
The Conclusion.
A Dialectal Approach To Argument.
Addressing Counterarguments.
How Much Counterargument?
Refutation and Concession.
Rogerian Strategy.
When There Is No Other Side.
Application To Writing.
Logical Joining of Contrasting and Concessive Ideas.
The Concessive Sentence.
More on Coherence.
Sample Essays.
Four Approaches To Writing Arguments.
Summary.
Key Terms.

5. The Language of Argument-Definition.
Logical Definition.
Definition and the Social Sciences.
Definition and Perception.
Language: An Abstract Form of Symbols.
The Importance Of Specificity.
The Manipulation Of Language.
Stipulating Personal Meaning.
Plato.
Shakespeare.
Ambrose Bierce.
Inventing New Words to Fill a Need.
Summary.
Key Terms.

6. Logical Fallacies.
What Is A Fallacious Argument?
Some Common Fallacies.
Key Terms.

7. Deductive And Inductive Argument.
Key Distinctions.
Necessity Versus Probability.
From General To Specific, Specific To General.
The Relationship Between Induction And Deduction.
Deductive Reasoning.
Class Logic.
Relationship Between Classes.
Class Logic and the Syllogism.
A Note on Deduction and Written Argument.
Inductive Reasoning.
Generalization.
The Direction of Inductive Reasoning.
Testing Inductive Generalizations.
Hasty Generalizations.
Thinking Critically About Surveys and Statistics.
Application To Writing.
Deduction, Induction, and Organizational Patterns.
Summary.
Key Terms.

8. The Language of Argument -- Style.
Sentence Length.
Appositives—A Strategy for Defining and Identifying Terms within the Sentence.
Appositives and Argument.
Parallelism.
The Structure of Parallelism.
Logic of Parallel Series.
Emphasizing Ideas with Parallelism.
Sentence Focus—Techniques for Sharpening the Flow of Ideas.
Concrete Subjects.
Active and Passive Verbs.
More Ways to Sharpen Focus.
Revision.
Summary.
Key Terms.

9. Research and Documentation.
Research.
Think First.
How to Conduct Your Research.
Documentation.
What Information Should Be Documented?
How Should It Be Documented?
Formatting Your Paper.
Sample Research Paper.

PART II. THE READINGS.

SECTION I. -- The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech and Censorship.

I. Introduction.

II. The First Amendment: Protected or Exploited?
The Critics Express Their Views on The People vs. Larry Flynt.
"Now Playing at Theatres Everywhere".
"Larry Flynt Is No Hero," Gloria Steinem.
"Larry Flynt's Big Makeover," Ellen Goodman.
"A Great Hustle for Porn King," Oliver North.

Four Supporters of The People vs. Larry Flynt Defend Their Motive.
An Unseemly Man, Forward, Larry Flynt with Kenneth Ross.
National Press Club Address, Milos Forman.

III. Controlling Offensive Speech on the Internet The Communications Decency Act.
Opinion of the Supreme Court.
"Unshackling Net Speech," Joshua Quittner.
"A Free Web Benefits Public Health," Gloria Feldt, President, Planned Parenthood.
Letters to the Editor.

Ongoing Efforts to Limit Pornography The Problem.
"A Father, a Friend, a Seller of Cyberporn," Seth Schiesel.

The Controversy.
"A Tool That Filters the Web, for Better or Worse," A Diagram.
"Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning?"
"Sex, Kids, and the Public Library," Marilyn Gell Mason.
"Keeping Libraries User and Family Friendly: The Challenge of Internet.
Pornography", Robert Marshall.
"From His Dorm Room," Jeffrey R. Young.

Free Speech or Hate Crime?
"Schools Challenge Students' Internet Talk," Tamar Lewin.
"Is Hate Young and New on the Web?" Jean Winegardner.
"Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance,".
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
The First Amendment: Concluding Topic.

SECTION TWO--BIOETHICS IN A CHANGING WORLD.

I. Introduction.

II. The Ethical Dilemmas of Cloning.
A Prophesy.
"Moving toward the Clonal Man," James D. Watson.

The Story of Dolly the Sheep and Her Aftermath.
"After Decades and Many Missteps, Cloning Success," Michael Specter & Gina Kolata.
"Cloned Cows Have Younger than Normal Cells".
Another View of Cloning, Russell Baker.

The Debate.
"Clonalities," William Safire.
"Will We Follow the Sheep?" Jeffrey Kluger.
"Ethical Fears Aside, Science Plunges on," George Johnson.
"Overcoming Yuk," Oliver Morton.
"Human Cloning and the Challenge of Regulation," John Robertson.
The Biotech Century, Jeremy Rifkin.
"To Clone or Not to Clone," Jean Bethke Elshtain.
"Second Thoughts on Cloning," Laurence Tribe.
"Can Souls Be Xeroxed?" Robert Wright.

III. Nature versus Nurture.
"Nature vs. Nurture," Artist's Sketchbook by Art Spiegelman.
Aristotle to Zoos: A Philosophical Dictionary of Biology, P.B. & J.S. Medawar.
"Born That Way," William Wright.
"Do Parents Matter," Malcolm Gladwell.
"The DNA Mystique: The Gene as a Cultural Icon," Dorothy Nelkin & Susan Lindee.
"Politics of Biology," Wray Herbert.
"Learning Right from Wrong," Sharon Begley and Claudia Kalb.

IV. Further Frontiers in Biotechnology.
Marketing Fertility.
"Clinics Selling Embryos Made for Adoption", Gina Kolata.
"Fertility for Sale," a survey.
"Eggs for Sale," Rebecca Mead.

Decoding the Genome.
"Two Groups on Verge of Reading the Entire Human Gene Code," Tom Abate.

Gene Therapy.
"Long-awaited Gene Therapy Success Restores Two Babies to Health".
"Stem Cell Research Debated at Senate Hearing".

V. Science into Fiction.
"Clone Your Wife," Arthur Hoppe.

VI. Bioethics: Concluding Topics.

SECTION THREE--SEXUAL HARASSMENT.

I. Introduction.

II. Before Sexual Harassment.
"A Long Road to Women's Freedom," Merrill Joan Gerber.
Three Cartoons from the Archives of The New Yorker Magazine.

III. A Legal History of Sexual Harassment.
"Sexual Harassment of Working Women," Catharine McKinnon.
"The Trouble With Sex," Jeffrey Toobin.
"Reconceptualizing Sexual Harassment," Vicki Shultz.
"Harris v. Forklift," Opinion of the Supreme Court, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor.
"The Supreme Court's Decision in Harris v. Forklift," Vicki Schultz.

IV. The Sex in Sexual Harassment Has Undergone "a process of semantic drift".
"Men Behaving Badly," Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

V. Higher Barriers Between Men and Women.
"Sexual Separatism," Diana Trilling.
"A Call for Lustiness," Camille Paglia.

VI. Are Women the Only Victims of Sexual Harassment?
"Man Handling," Harsh Luther and Anthony Townsend.
"One Man's Tale of Harassment," Robert Ward.
"High Court Ruling Says Harassment Includes Same Sex," Linda Greenhouse.

VII. A Double Standard.
"Feminism's Double Standard," Cynthia Tucker.
"High Court's Mixed Decisions," Ellen Goodman.
"Sexual Harassment and Double Standards," Marcia D. Greenberger and Vernal L. Williams.

VIII. Sexual Harassment on Campus.
"Bad Behavior," Francine Prose.
"This Is Teaching?" Linda Hirshman.
"Call It What It Is: Censorship," Michael S. Greve.
Oleanna, David Mamet.

Defining Sexual Harassment on Campus.
An excerpt from the Policy on Sexual Harassment and Complaint.
Resolution Procedures of the University of California.
An excerpt from the Antioch College Sexual Offense Policy.
Student-on-Student Sexual Harassment.
Excerpts from the Supreme Court decision on student-on-student sexual harassment, Justices Sandra Day O'Connor and William M.Kennedy.
"Teaching Johnny the Appropriate Way to Flirt," Cynthia Gorney.

IX. Sexual Harassment: Concluding Topic.

SECTION FOUR--ROMANCE AND MARRIAGE.

I. Introduction.

II. The Dating Game.
The Rules.
"What Are the Rules?," Ellen Fein and Sherrie Schneider.
"The Rules-at-a-Glance," Ellen Fein and Sherrie Schneider.
"Girl Talk," Shann Nix.
"Breaking The Rules," Nate Penn and Lawrence LaRose.

Dating As A Business Venture.
"If You Can't Get A Man With A Gun, Big Bucks Might Work," Robert McGough.

Dating in Cyberspace.
"Virtual Love," Meghan Daum.

III. Marriage.
"The Marriage Market," E. J. Graff.
"The Marriage Trap," Barbara Graham.
"Marriage," Mary Elizabeth Coleridge a poem.
"The Marriage," Anne Stevenson a poem.
"He and I," Natalia Ginzburg.
"What Does the Falcon Owe?," Rosellen Brown a short story.

What's In A Name?
"Beginning With Names," Casey Miller and Kate Smith.
"Maiden Names," Justin Kaplan and Anne Bernays.
"Mr., Make No Mistake, This Mrs. Is Decidedly Ms.," Sarah Lyall.
A Mother's Name," Jenny McPhee.

Same-Sex Marriage.
"Why Get Married," Carol Ostrom.
"Let Gays Marry," Andrew Sullivan.
"Leave Marriage Alone," William Bennett.
"Why Marry," Frank Browning.

IV. Romance and Marriage: Concluding Topics.

SECTION FIVE--LANGUAGE AND MEANING.

I. Introduction.
The Reader.
"The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently," Thomas Lux.
"Amy and Isabelle," Elizabeth Strout.
"The Shadow Life of Reading," Sven Birkerts.

The Reader, the Computer and Hypertext.
"The End of Books," Robert Coover.
"Never-Ending Saga," Michiko Kakutani.
"www.claptrap.com," Laura Miller.

III. Culture.
"Chinese Relations," Nicholas D. Kristof.
"The Rich Idioms of Russian: Verbal Soul Food of a Culture," Michael Specter.
"Dialects: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly--They're All Myths," Margalit Fox.
"The Quare Gene," Tony Earley.
"Today's Kids Are, Like, Killing The English Language. Yeah, Right," Kirk Johnson.
"Languages Are Political Constructions," Geoff Nunberg.

IV. Figurative Language.
Metaphor, Simile, Personification.
"Simile," Rosanna Warren.
"Concepts We Live By," George Lakoff and Mark Johnson.
"The Argument Culture," Deborah Tannen.
"Let's Deproblematize Beauty," Edwin Wilson.
"Metaphor Monopoly," Steven Johnson.

Analogy.
"Getting Off Easy in Tobacco Land," Barbara Ehrenreich.
"In Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson.

Symbols.
"Symbolism," David Lodge.

Symbolism in Advertising.
Mercedes Ad.
Nike Ad.
Mercedes Ad.
"Greasy Lake," T. Coraghessan Boyle.

Beyond Figurative Language.
"The Language of Poetry," Kenneth Koch.

Language and Meaning--Concluding Topics.

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