Writing Matters / Edition 2

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More About This Textbook


This Comprehensive version of Writing Matters unites research, reasoning, documentation, grammar, and style into a cohesive whole, helping students see the conventions of writing as a network of responsibilities writers have…

… to other writers. Writing Matters emphasizes the responsibility writers share, whether collaborating online in peer review or conducting research with digital and print sources, to treat information fairly and accurately and to craft writing that is unique and original—their own!

… to the audience. Writing Matters emphasizes the need to use conventions appropriate to the readership, to write clearly, and to provide readers with the information and interpretation they need to make sense of a topic.

… to the topic. Writing Matters encourages writers to explore a topic thoroughly and creatively, to assess sources carefully, and to provide reliable information at a depth that does the topic justice.

… to themselves. Writing Matters encourages writers to take their writing seriously and to approach writing tasks as an opportunity to learn about a topic and to expand their scope as writers. Students are more likely to write well when they think of themselves as writers rather than as error-makers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073405957
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 1/11/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 992
  • Sales rank: 115,295
  • Product dimensions: 6.60 (w) x 7.60 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Part One: Writing Matters 1

Foldout Writing Responsibly Checklist
1 Writing Responsibly in theInformation Age 2
a. Writing Today 2
b. The Writer’s Responsibilities 3

2 Planning 9
a. Analyzing Your Writing Situation 9
b. Analyzing an Assignment 17
c. Generating Ideas 20
d. Narrowing or Broadening a Topic 25
e. Planning a Collaborative Project 26
Student Models Freewrite 21; Brainstorm 22;Journalists’ Questions 24

3 Organizing and Drafting 29
a. Thesis 29
b. Organization 33
c. Preparing to Draft 38
d. Drafting 40
e. Collaborating 45
Student Models Informal (or Scratch)Outline 36; Topic Outline and SentenceOutline 36; First Draft 42

4 Crafting and Connecting
Paragraphs 46
a. Relevance 47
b. Unity 47
c. Coherence 52
d. Development with Patterns 59
e. Introductions 63
f. Conclusions 65
g. Connecting Paragraphs 69
Professional Model Editorial 69

5 Drafting and Revising Visuals 73
a. Illustrating College Projects 73
b. Visuals as Evidence 74
c. Copying vs. Creating Visuals 78
d. Revising Visuals 78

6 Revising, Editing, Proofreading,and Formatting 82
Revising Globablly
a. Gaining Perspective 82
b. Revising 83
c. Reconsidering Your Title 86
Revising Locally
d. Choosing Words 87
e. Editing Sentences 88
Revising with Others
f. Peer Revising 90
g. Working with a Tutor, Instructor 92
Proofreading and Formatting h. Proofreading 93
i. Formatting an Academic Text 95
j. Portfolio 99
k. Writing Responsibly Explaining YourChoice of Sources 104
Student Models Final Draft 95; PersonalStatement 101

Part Two: Reasoning Matters 107

7 Thinking and Reading Critically 108
a. Comprehending 108
b. Reflecting 114
c. Preparing to Write 119
d. Writing Responsibly Understandingand Representing the Entire Source 132
Student Models Summary 111;Double-Entry Reading Journal 118; Claims andEvidence Analysis 121; Advertisement Critique 121;Prewrite 123; Critical Response Essay 127Professional Models Essay 112; Editorial 115

8 Analyzing and CraftingArguments 134
a. Persuading and Exploring 134
b. Claims 138
c. Rhetorical Evidence 142
d. Alternative Viewpoints 145
e. Assumptions, Common Ground 147
f. Classical, Rogerian, Toulmin Models 154
g. Logical Fallacies 156
Student Model Exploratory Argument 147

Part Three: Media Matters 161

9 Designing Documents 162
a. Design Principles 162
b. Planning 163
c. Applying the Principles 164

10 Writing for Multiple Media 171
a. Writing, Answering E-mail 172
b. Creating Websites, Web Pages 176
c. Writing in Interactive Media 181

11 Presenting with Multiple Media 183
a. Purpose, Audience, Context, Genre 183
b. Topic and Thesis 184
c. Organization 185
d. Preparing and Rehearsing 186
e. Delivering the Presentation 189
f. Speaking Responsibly 189

Part Four: Research Matters 191

12 Planning a Research Project 192
a. Analyzing the Assignment 192
b. Setting a Schedule 194
c. Choosing, Narrowing a Topic 195
d. Research Questions, Hypotheses 195
e. Choosing Sources Strategically 197
f. Research Log 198
g. Working Bibliography 200

13 Finding Information 206
a. Reference Works 206
b. Information on the Web 210
c. Interactive Media 214
d. Articles in Journals, Periodicals 215
e. Books 220
f. Government Information 224
g. Multimedia Sources 225
h. Field Research 226

14 Evaluating Information 230
a. Relevance and Reliability 230
b. Online Texts 236
c. Visual Sources 239
d. Writing Responsibly Choosing andUnpacking Complex Sources 244

15 Using Information Responsibly:Taking Notes and AvoidingPlagiarism 246
a. Valuing Research 248
b. Acknowledging 248
c. Notes to Avoid Plagiarizing 250
d. Notes That Help You Research 251
e. Paraphrasing, Not Patchwriting 252
f. Summarizing 256
g. Quoting 259
h. Analyzing, Interpreting, Synthesizing,and Critiquing 262
Student Models Summary 257; Reading Note 261;Summary Note with Writer’s Assessment 263

16 Writing the Research Project 264
a. Thesis Statement 264
b. Organization 266
c. Drafting 270
d. Revising, Proofreading, Formatting,and Publishing 273
Student Models Thesis Statement 265;Outline 268

17 Citing Expertly 274
a. Source Material 275
b. Source Boundaries 276
c. Your Voice 278
d. Context 280
e. Altered Quotations 284

Part Five: Documentation Matters 287

Foldout Documenting Sources: MLA Style

18 Documenting Sources:MLA Style 288
a. MLA In-Text Citations 288
b. MLA Works-Cited List 305
c. MLA Style Notes 331
d. MLA Format 332
Student Model Research Project: MLA Style 336

Foldout Documenting Sources: APA Style19 Documenting Sources:APA Style 347
a. APA In-Text Citations 347
b. APA Reference List 358
c. APA Style Notes 376
d. APA Format 377
Student Model Research Project: APA Style 381

20Documenting Sources:Chicago Style 389
a. Chicago-Style Notes and Bibliography 390
b. Chicago Style Tables and Figures 407
c. Chicago-Style Research Project 407
Student Model Research Project:Chicago Style 408

21 Documenting Sources: CSE Style 416
a. CSE In-Text Citations 416
b. CSE Reference List 418
c. CSE Format 428
Student Model Research Project: CSE-StyleReference List 429

Part Six: Genre Matters 431

22 Writing in Literature andthe Other Humanities 432
a. Approach 432
b. Resources 435
c. Citing, Documenting Sources 437
d. Language 437
e. Writing about Fiction 440
f. Writing about Poetry 446
g. Writing about Drama 451
Student Models Textual Analysis 434; Writingabout Fiction: Interpretive Analysis 442; Writingabout Poetry: Explication 446
Professional Model Writing about Drama:Review of a Play 451

23 Writing in the Sciences and SocialSciences 455
a. Approach 455
b. Research Methods 456
c. Citing, Documenting Sources 457
d. Language 457
e. Writing Assignments 459
Student Model Research Report 461

24 Preparing for and Takingan Essay Exam 469
a. Preparing for an Exam 469
b. Previewing the Exam 471
c. Writing an Effective Answer 472
Student Model Effective Essay Exam:Response 474

25 Writing in Businessand as a Citizen 476
a. Business Letter Formats 476
b. Business Letters 479
c. Business Memos 481
d. Job Application Letters 482
e. Résumés 486
f. Reports and Proposals 490
g. Press Releases 492
Student Models Job Application 485; TraditionalRésumé 487; Scannable Résumé 489;Professional Models Business Letter: Apology480; Business Memo 482; Press Release 493

Part Seven Style Matters 495

26 Writing Concisely 496
a. Wordy Expressions 497
b. Unnecessary Repetition 499
c. Indirect Constructions 500
d. Consolidation 502
27 Using Coordination andSubordination 505
a. Coordinating Terms, Phrases, Clauses 506
b. Effective Coordination 507
c. Main Ideas, Supporting Information 510
d. Coordination and Subordination 515

28 Using Parallelism 518
a. Pairs and Series 520
b. Comparisons 522
c. Function 522
d. Lists and Outlines 523
e. Emphasis 525

29 Variety and Emphasis 527
a. Varying Sentence Length 528
b. Varying Sentence Openings 529
c. Emphasis with Rhythm 531
d. Emphasis with Punctuation 533
e. Questions, Commands, Exclamations 534
f. Strategic Repetition 534
g. Emphatic Verbs 535
h. Active or Passive Voice 535
i. Writing Responsibly Blending Voicesin Your Text 538

30 Appropriate Language 540
a. Language in Context 540
b. Biased or Hurtful Language 544
31 Effective Word Choice 548
a. Diction 548
b. Compelling Words and Figures 550
c. Idioms 554
d. Clichés 555
32 Dictionary and Spelling 558
a. Choosing a Dictionary 558
b. Using a Dictionary 560
c. Common Spelling Problems 562
d. Spelling Rules 564
e. Plurals 569
f. Improving Your Spelling 571

Part Eight: Grammar Matters 573

Foldout Common Sentence Problems
33 Grammar 574
a. Nouns 575
b. Pronouns 577
c. Verbs 577
d. Adjectives 580
e. Adverbs 581
f. Prepositions 582
g. Conjunctions 583
h. Interjections 584

i. Subjects 585
j. Predicates 587
k. Verb Types, Sentence Patterns 588
l. Phrases 591
m. Clauses 594
n. Sentence Types 597
34 Sentence Fragments 600
a. Recognizing Fragments 600
b. Correcting Fragments 604
c. Intentional Fragments 609
35 Comma Splices and FusedSentences 611
a. Joining Independent Clauses 611
b. Identifying Comma Splices,Fused Sentences 612
c. Avoiding Spliced, Fused Sentences 613
d. Correcting Spliced, Fused Sentences 615
36 Agreement 620

a. Subjects and Verbs Agree 620
b. Intervening Words 622
c. Compound Subjects 623
d. Indefinite Pronouns 625
e. Collective Noun 625
f. Measurements, Numbers 626
g. Singular Nouns with –s 627
h. Titles, Words as Words, Gerund 627
i. Who, Which, or That 628
j. Subject after Verb 629
k. Linking Verbs 629

l. Indefinite and Generic Words 631
m. Collective Nouns 634
n. Compound Antecedents 634

37 Verbs 636
a. Basic Forms 636
b. Regular and Irregular Verbs 638
c. Complete Verbs 639
d. -s or -es, -d or -ed Endings 642
e. Rise/Raise, Sit/Set, Lie/Lay 643

f. Verb Tenses 644
g. Uses of the Present Tense 647
h. Tense Sequence 648

i. Verb Mood 650
j. Subjunctive Mood 650

k. Verb Voice 652
l. Active vs. Passive 653
38 Pronoun Case, Reference 656

a. Subject Complements 658
b. Case in Compounds:She and I vs. Her and Me 658
c. Appositives 660
d. We and Us before Nouns 660
e. Infinitives 661
f. Case with -ing Words 661
g. Comparisons with Than or As 662
h. Who/Whom, Whoever/Whomever 663

i. Ambiguous Reference 665
j. Broad Reference 665
k. Implied Reference 666
l. You for Direct Address 666
m. Indefinite They, It 666
n. Who, Whom vs. That, Which 667
39 Adjectives and Adverbs 669
a. Adjectives vs. Adverbs 669
b. Subject Complements 670
c. Bad vs. Badly, Good vs. Well 671
d. Double Negatives 673
e. Nouns as Adjectives 673
f. Comparatives and Superlatives 674
40 Confusing Shifts 678
a. Tense 678
b. Mood and Voice 679
c. Person and Number 681
d. Direct and Indirect Quotations 683
41 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 686

a. Confusing Placement 687
b. Disruptive Placement 689

c. Identifying 692
d. Correcting 693
42 Mixed and IncompleteConstructions 695

a. Mixed Constructions 695
b. Subjects and Predicates 697

c. Essential Words 700
d. Comparisons 701

Part Nine: Language Matters 703

43 English Sentence Structure 704
a. Normal Word Order 704
b. Stated Subject 704
c. There and It Sentences 705
d. Redundant Pronouns 706
e. Objects 707
f. Questions 709
g. Inversions 710

44 Nouns 713
a. Noun Types 713
b. Articles, Other Determiners 714

45 Verb Issues 722
a. Phrasal Verbs 722
b. Gerunds and Infinitives 725
c. Participles as Adjectives 727
d. Helping Verbs 728

46 Adjectives and Adverbs 732
a. Adjective Order 732
b. Prepositions with Adjectives 733
c. Adverb Placement 734
d. Confusing Adverbs 736

47 Prepositions 739
a. Recognizing Prepositions 739
b. Functions of Prepositions 740
c. Using Prepositions 744
d. Necessary, Unnecessary Prepositions 745

Part Ten: Detail Matters 747

48 Commas 748
a. Compound Sentences 750
b. Introductory Elements 751
c. Conjunctive Adverbs,Transitional Phrases 753
d. Interjections, Contrasting Information, 753
e. Items in a Series 754
f. Coordinate Adjectives 755
g. Nonessential Elements 757
h. Quotations 759
i. Numbers, Names, Titles, Dates, etc. 760
j. Avoiding Ambiguity 762
k. Avoiding use Between Subjects/Verbs,Verbs/Objects 763

49 Semicolons 766
a. Linking Independent Clauses 767
b. Conjunctive Adverbs,Transitional Phrases 768
c. Series with Commas 769
d. Comma Splices, Fused Sentences 769
e. Misuse 770

50 Apostrophes 773
a. Possession 773
b. Contractions, Abbreviated Years 777
c. Avoiding Use with Plurals of Dates,Abbreviations, Numbers, etc. 777

51 Quotation Marks 780
a. Direct Quotations 780
b. Titles of Short Works 783
c. Words Used in a Special Sense 784
d. Misuse 784
e. Punctuating Quotations 785
f. Altering Quotations: Ellipses,Square Brackets 786
g. Introducing, Identifying Quotations 787
h. Writing Responsibly AcknowledgingIndirect Sources 790

52 End Punctuation 792
a. Periods 792
b. Question Marks 793
c. Exclamation Points 794

53 Dashes, Parentheses, Colons, Ellipses,and Other Marks 796
a. Dashes 796
b. Parentheses 798
c. Brackets 800
d. Colons 800
e. Ellipses 803
f. Slashes 805

54 Capitalizing 807
a. First Word of a Sentence 807
b. Proper Nouns, Proper Adjectives 809
c. Titles and Subtitles 810
d. Pronoun I and InterjectionO 811
e. Abbreviations and Acronyms 812

55 Italics and Underlining 814
a. Titles of Longer Works 814
b. Emphasis 816
c. Names of Vehicles 816
d. Words, Letters, Numbers as Words 816
e. Non-English Words; Latin Genus, Species 817
f. Hyperlinks 817

56 Abbreviations 820
a. Titles 822
b. Acronyms and Initialisms 822
c. Years, Hours, Numbers, Dollars 823
d. Misuse with Names, Words, States, etc. 823
e. Latin Abbreviations 824

57 Numbers 826
a. When to Spell Out 827
b. With Dates, Times, Addresses, Money, etc. 827

58 Using Hyphens 830
a. Compounds 830
b. Breaking Words 833

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