Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide / Edition 12by James D. Lester, Jim D. Lester
This is an indispensable guide to research writing; it has been relied upon by millions of students & instructors over the years. Lester explains how documentation has changed from footnotes to in-text citations, while the content of research papers now includes cross-curricular topics. In this 1993 edition, there is new material on using electronic sources,… See more details below
This is an indispensable guide to research writing; it has been relied upon by millions of students & instructors over the years. Lester explains how documentation has changed from footnotes to in-text citations, while the content of research papers now includes cross-curricular topics. In this 1993 edition, there is new material on using electronic sources, generating papers on a computer, setting goals, drafting research proposals, & reading & evaluating reference sources. In addition, there are several new student sample papers, as well as updated coverage of the writing process.
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Table of Contents1. Writing from Research.
Why Do Research?
Learning Format Variation.
Understanding a Research Assignment.
Establishing a Schedule.
2. Finding a Topic.
Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem.
Talking with Others to Refine the Topic.
Using the World Wide Web to Refine Your Topic.
Using Electronic Databases to Narrow the Subject.
Using Electronic Book Catalogs to Find and Narrow the Subject.
Using Individual Diskettes.
Using Printed Materials to Evaluate Your Potential Topic.
Drafting a Research Proposal.
Expressing Your Thesis.
3. Gathering Data in the Library.
Launching the Search.
Using the Electronic Book Catalog.
Developing a Working Bibliography.
Using Printed Bibliographies.
Searching the Printed Indexes.
Searching for Essays within Books.
Using the Microforms.
4. Searching the World Wide Web.
Reading an Internet Address.
Using a Search Engine.
Using a Subject Directory.
Using a Key-Word Search.
Accessing Online Sources.
Using Online Rather than Print Versions.
Using Gopher, FTP, Telnet.
Using Listserve, Usenet, and Chat Groups.
Examining other Libraries Via Internet Access.
Finding an Internet Bibliography.
Conducting Archival Research.
5. Collecting Data Outside the Library.
Investigating Home Town Sources.
Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio.
Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire.
Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observations.
6. Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals.
Charting a Direction and Setting Goals.
Using Academic Models (Paradigms).
Writing a Formal Outline.
7. Finding and Reading the Best Sources.
Finding the BestSource Materials.
Selecting a Mix of Both Primary and Secondary Sources.
Reading All or Part of a Source.
Responding to the Sources.
Preparing an Annotated Bibliography.
Preparing a Brief Review of the Literature on a Topic.
8. Practicing Academic Integrity.
Using sources to enhance your credibility.
Placing the Source in Its Proper Context.
Honoring Property Rights.
Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects.
Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms.
Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site.
9. Writing Notes.
Creating Effective Notes.
Writing Personal Notes.
Writing Direct Quotation Notes.
Writing Paraphrased Notes.
Writing Summary Notes.
Writing Précis Notes.
Writing Notes from Field Research.
10. Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style.
Focusing Your Argument.
Refining the Thesis Sentence.
Writing an Academic Title.
Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files.
Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language.
11. Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style.
Blending Reference Citations into Your Text.
Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed.
Identifying Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number.
Identifying Internet Sources.
Omitting Page Numbers to Internet Citations.
Citing Indirect Sources.
Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work.
Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies.
Adding Extra Information to In-text Citations.
Punctuating Citations Properly and With Consistency.
Indenting Long Quotations.
Handling Quotations from a Play.
Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter.
Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points.
Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets.
12. Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion.
Writng the Introduction of the Paper.
Writing the Body of the Research Paper.
Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper.
13. Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft.
Conducting Global Revision.
Formatting the Paper to MLA Style.
Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript.
Proofreading On the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript.
14. Works Cited: MLA Style.
Formatting the "Works Cited" Page.
Bibliography Form: Newspapers.
Bibliography Form--Government Documents.
Bibliography Form: Electronic Sources (Internet, E-mail, Data Bases).
Bibliography Form: Citing Sources Found on CD-ROM.
Bibliography Form: Other Electronic Sources.
15. Writing in APA Style.
Writing Theory, Reporting Results, or Reviewing Literature.
Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Paper.
Using In-text Citations in APA Style.
Preparing a Working Draft or Publishing the Manuscript.
Preparing the List of References.
Variations on the APA Style for other Disciplines in the Social Sciences.
Formatting an APA Paper.
Writing the Abstract.
Sample Paper in APA Style.
16. The Footnote System: CMS Style.
Marking In-Text Citations with a Superscript Numeral.
Formatting and Writing the Footnotes.
Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources.
Writing Subsequent Footnote References.
Writing Endnotes rather than Footnotes.
Writing Content Footnotes or Endnotes.
Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities.
Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Fine Arts.
Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes.
Sample Paper in CMS Footnote Style.
17. CBE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences.
Writing In-Text Citations with Numbers.
Using Number with Bibliography Entries.
Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year.
Using Name and Year with Bibliography Entries.
Sample Paper CBE Number System.
18. Preparing Electronic Research Projects.
Using Word Processing.
Building Electronic Presentations.
Research Paper Web Pages and Sites.
Planning Electronic Research Papers.
Using Graphics In Your Electronic Research Paper.
Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper.
Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers.
Appendix A Glossary: Rules and Techniques for Preparing a Manuscript.
Appendix B Finding Sources for a Selected Discipline.
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