Writing Research Papers / Edition 8

Writing Research Papers / Edition 8

by James D. Lester

ISBN-10: 0321026446

ISBN-13: 9780321026446

Pub. Date: 01/28/1996

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

The definitive research paper guide, Writing Research Papers combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation.


Key Benefits:

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The definitive research paper guide, Writing Research Papers combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation.


Key Benefits:

This market-leading text provides students with step-by-step guidance through the research writing process, from selecting and narrowing a topic to formatting the finished document


Key Topics:



Evaluating Sources

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
6.60(w) x 9.03(h) x 0.95(d)

Table of Contents


Preface to the Instructor

Preface to the Student


Chapter 1   Writing from Research

1a Why Do Research?

1b Learning Format Variations

1c Understanding a Research Assignment

        Understanding the Terminology

1d Establishing a Schedule


Chapter 2   Finding a Topic

2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem

        Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics

        Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues

2b Talking with Others to Find and Refine the Topic

            Personal Interviews

            Online Discussion Groups

2c   Using the World Wide Web to Refine Your Topic

            Using an Online Subject Directory

            Using an Internet Key-word Search

2d   Using the Library’s Electronic Databases to Find and Narrow a Subject

2e   Using the Library’s Electronic Book Catalogs to Find a Topic

2f   Expressing a Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis

2g   Drafting a Research Proposal

            The Short Proposal

            The Long Proposal

Your Research Project


Chapter 3   Finding and Filtering Electronic Sources

3a Beginning an Online Search

3b Reading an Online Address

3c Using a Search Engine

        Subject Directory Search Engines

         Robot-Driven Search Engines

         Metasearch Engines

         Specialized Search Engines

         Educational Search Engines

         Educational Search Engines Maintained by Libraries

3d Searching for Articles in Journals and Magazines

        Online Journals

        Online Magazines

3e Searching for Articles in Newspapers and Media Sources

3f Accessing E-Books

3g Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups

          E-mail News Groups

        Real-Time Chatting

3h Examining Library Holdings via Internet Access

3i Finding an Internet Bibliography

3j Conducting Archival Research on the Internet

          Go to the Library

        Go to an Edited Search Engine

        Go to a Metasearch Engine

        Use Search Engine Directories

        Go to a Listserv or UseNet Group

        Go to Newspaper Archives

Your Research Project


Chapter 4   Gathering Data in the Library

4a   Launching the Search

4b   Developing a Working Bibliography

4c      Finding Books on Your Topic

            Using Your Library’s Electronic Book Catalog

            Using the Library’s Printed Bibliographies

4d   Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals

            Searching the General Indexes to Periodicals

            Finding Indexes by Discipline in Appendix B

            Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes

            Searching for an Index to Abstracts

            Searching for Abstracts of Dissertations

4e Searching for a Biography

4f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes

4g Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files

4h Searching for Government Documents

4i Searching for Essays within Books

4j Using the Microforms

Your Research Project


Chapter 5   Conducting Research Outside the Library

5a Investigating Local Sources

            Interviewing Knowledgeable People

            Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail

            Reading Personal Papers

            Attending Lectures and Public Addresses

5b Investigating Government Documents

5c Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio

5d Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire

5e Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation

Your Research Project


Chapter 6   Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism

6a Using Sources to Enhance Your Credibility

6b Placing Your Work in Its Proper Context

6c Honoring Property Rights

6d Avoiding Plagiarism

            Common Knowledge Exceptions

            Correctly Borrowing from a Source

6e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects

6f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms

6g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site

Your Research Project


Chapter 7   Finding  and Evaluating  Sources

7a Finding Reliable Sources

7b Selecting a Mix of both Primary and Secondary Sources

7c Evaluating  a Source

            Evaluating the Key Parts of an Article      

            Evaluating the Key Parts of a Book

             Evaluating the Key Parts of an Internet Article

7d Outlining a Source

7e Summarizing a Source

7f Preparing an Annotated Bibliography

7g Preparing a Review of the Literature on Topic

Your Research Project


Chapter 8   Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals

8a Charting a Direction and Setting Goals

            Using a Basic, Dynamic Order to Chart the Course of Your                             Work

            Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Notetaking

            Listing Keywords and Phrases to Set Directions for                                       Notetaking

            Writing a Rough Outline

             Using Questions to Identify Issues

            Setting Goals by Using Organizational Patterns       

            Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Major                         Ideas

            Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research

8b Using Academic Models (Paradigms)

            A General All-Purpose Model

            Paradigm for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories

            Paradigm for the Analysis of Creative Works

            Paradigm for Argument and Persuasion Papers

            Paradigm for Analysis of History

            Paradigm for a Comparative Study

8c   Writing a Formal Outline

             Using Standard Outline Symbols

            Writing a Formal Topic Outline

            Writing a Formal Sentence Outline

            Using a Research Journal to Enrich Your Organizational Plan

Your Research Project


Chapter 9   Writing Notes

            Gathering Printouts, Photocopies, Scanned Images, and Downloaded Data

            Writing Notes of High Quality

9a Creating Effective Notes

            Honoring the Conventions of Research Style

            Using a Computer for Notetaking

            Developing Handwritten Notes

9b Writing Personal Notes

9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes

            Quoting Primary Sources

            Quoting the Secondary Sources

9d Writing Paraphrased Notes

9e Writing Summary Notes

9f Writing Précis Notes

          Use the Précis to Review Briefly an Article or Book

        Use the Précis to Write an Annotated Bibliography

        Use the Précis in a Plot Summary Note

        Use the Précis as the Form for an Abstract

9g   Writing Notes from Field Research

Your Research Project


Chapter 10   Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style

10a Focusing Your Argument

            Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas

10b Refining the Thesis Statement

        Using Questions to Focus the Thesis

        Adjust or Change Your Thesis during Research if Necessary

10c Writing an Academic Title

10d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files

        Writing from Your Notes

        Writing with Unity and Coherence

        Writing in the Proper Tense

        Using the Language of the Discipline

        Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing

        Writing in the Third Person

        Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner

10e Using Visuals  Effectively in a Research Essay

10f Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language

Your Research Project


Chapter 11   Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style

11a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text

        Making a General Reference without a Page Number

        Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number

         Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name

        Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed                      Material

11b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed

        Citing the Title of a Magazine Article

        Citing the Title of a Report

        Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body

11c Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number

11d Citing Internet Sources

        Identify the Source with Name or Title

        Identify the Nature of the Information and Its Credibility

        Omitting Page and Paragraph Numbers to Internet Citations

11e Citing Indirect Sources

11f Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work

11g Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies

11h Adding Extra Information to In-text Citations

        One of Several Volumes

        Two or More Works by the Same Writer

        Several Authors in One Citation

        Additional Information with the Page Number

11i Punctuating Citations Properly and Consistently

        Commas and Periods

        Semicolons and Colons

        Question Marks and Exclamation Marks

        Single Quotation Marks

11j Indenting Long Quotations

11k Citing Poetry

        Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less

        Quoting Three Lines of Poetry or More

        Indenting Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry

        Retaining Internal Quotations within a Block

        Providing Translations

11l Handling Quotations from a Play

11m Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter

11n Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points

11o   Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets



Your Research Project


Chapter 12   Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

12a Writing the Introduction of the Paper

        Provide the Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis

        Provide the Enthymeme

        Provide a Hypothesis

        Relate to the Well Known

        Provide Background Information

        Review the Literature

        Review the History and Background of the Subject

        Take Exception to Critical Views

        Challenge an Assumption

        Provide a Brief Summary

        Define Key Terms

        Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence

12b Writing the Body of the Research Paper

        Relate a Time Sequence

        Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary   Characters

        Develop Cause and Effect

        Define Your Key Terminology

        Explain a Process

        Ask Questions and Provide Answers

        Cite Evidence from the Source Materials

        Use a Variety of Other Methods

12c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper

        Restate the Thesis and Reach beyond It

        Close with an Effective Quotation

        Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author

        Compare the Past to the Present

        Offer a Directive or Solution

        Discuss Test Results

Your Research Project


Chapter 13   Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft

13a Conducting a Global Revision

        Revising the Introduction

        Revising the Body

        Revising the Conclusion

        Participating in Peer Review

13b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style

        Title Page or Opening Page



        The Text of the Paper

        Content Endnotes Page


        Works Cited

13c Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript

        Using the Computer to Edit Your Text

13d   Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript

Your Research Project

13e Sample Research Papers in MLA Style

        Short Literary Research Paper

        Sample Research Paper


Chapter 14   Works Cited: MLA Style

14a Formatting the Works Cited Page

14b Bibliography Form – Books

14c Bibliography Form – Periodicals

14d Bibliography Form – Newspapers

14e Bibliography Form – Government Documents

14f Bibliography Form – Internet Sources

14g Bibliography Form – Citing Sources Found on CD-ROM

14h Bibliography Form – Other Electronic Sources

14i  Bibliography Form – Other Sources


Chapter 15   Writing in APA Style

15a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature

        Theoretical Article

        Report of an Empirical Study

        Review Article

15b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Research Paper

15c Using In-text Citations in APA Style

15d Preparing the List of Reference






        Nonprint Material

        Internet Sources

        World Wide Web Sites


15e Variations on the APA Style for Other Disciplines in the Social Sciences


        Sociology and Social Work

15g Formatting an APA Paper

         Theoretical Article

        Report of an Empirical Study

        Review Article

15h Writing the Abstract

15h Sample Paper in APA Style


Chapter 16   The Footnote System: CMS Style

16a   Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text

        Writing Full or Abbreviated Notes

16b   Formatting and Writing the Footnotes 

16c   Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources

16d Writing Subsequent Footnote References

16e   Writing Endnotes Rather Than Footnotes

16f   Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes

16g   Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities

16h   Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Fine Arts

16i   Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes

16j   Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style


Chapter 17   CSE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences

          Guide by Discipline

17a Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Citation-Sequence  System 

17b Writing a  References Page

17c Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Name-Year System

17d Using Name-Year with Bibliographic Entries

17e  Sample Paper Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System


Chapter 18   Creating Electronic Research Papers

18a Beginning the Electronic Project

18b Using Word Processing

18c Building Electronic Presentations

18d Research Paper Web Pages and Sites

          Creating a Single Web Page

        Creating a Web Site with Multiple Pages

        Using an Editor to Create Web Pages

        Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text

        Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper

18e Planning Electronic Research Papers

          Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper

        Designing Your Electronic Research Paper

18f Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper

          Graph File Formats

        Creating Your Own Digital Graphics

18g Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper

18h Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers

18i Presenting Research in Alternative Formats

Your Research Project


Appendix A   Rules and Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style

Appendix B   Finding Reference Works for Your General Topic




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