Writing Today: Contexts and Options for the Real World, brief edition with Web access card / Edition 1

Writing Today: Contexts and Options for the Real World, brief edition with Web access card / Edition 1

by Donald Pharr, Santi V. Buscemi, Santi V. Buscemi
     
 

ISBN-10: 0072996307

ISBN-13: 9780072996302

Pub. Date: 10/15/2004

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780072996302
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
10/15/2004
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
7.34(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.95(d)

Table of Contents

PART 1: APPROACHES

Chapter 1: The Essay: Determining Purpose, Audience, and Approach

Characteristics of the Essay

Rhetorical Context

Defining Your Purpose

Defining Your Audience

Rhetorical Structures

The Classical Pattern of Organization

Anticipating Rhetorical Options

Reading with a Writer’s Eye

Consider the Writer’s Rhetorical Context and Rhetorical Structures

Consider Your Purposes as a Reader

Suzanne Britt, Neat People vs. Sloppy People

Essay Analysis

The Essay’s Rhetorical Context

The Essay’s Rhetorical Structure

Writing with a Reader’s Eye

STUDENT ESSAY: "A Very Secret Santa"

The Writing Process

Using the Internet

Chapter 2: Shaping Your Essay: Prewriting, Organizing, and Drafting

Why Should You Plan an Essay?

Choosing Your Topic

Establishing Your Rhetorical Context

Prewriting Strategies

Considering Your Purpose and Audience

Considering Your Learning Style

Aural Learners: Brainstorming with Peers

Aural Learners: Brainstorming with a Recorder

Verbal Learners: Written Brainstorming

Verbal Learners: Freewriting

Verbal Learners: Invisible Writing

Verbal Learners: Looping

Visual Learners: Clustering and Chart Making

Focusing Strategies

Establishing Your Working Thesis

Focusing Your Thesis

Organizational Strategies

Structuring Your Prewriting

Informal Outlines

Sentence Outlines

FormalOutlines

Drafting Strategies

Drafting In-class Essays

Drafting Out-of-Class Essays

Drafting with a Computer

Establishing Your Voice

STUDENT ESSAY: Verlinda’s First Draft of "A Very Secret Santa"

Using the Internet

Chapter 3: Developing Strong Paragraphs: Exploring Your Options

Paragraphs in Context

Introductory Paragraphs

Positioning the Thesis

Getting Your Reader’s Attention

Body Paragraphs

Description

Narration

Exemplification

Process Analysis

Causal Analysis

Definition

Classification

Comparison/Contrast

Argument

Concluding Paragraphs

Writing Effective Topic Sentences

Topic Sentence at the Paragraph’s Beginning

Ending with the Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence within the Paragraph

Topic Sentence Used for Two Paragraphs

The Implied Topic Sentence

Achieving Unity

Achieving Coherence

Using Effective Transitions

Achieving Coherence Through Careful Choice of Nouns and Pronouns

Using Parallelism

Achieving Specificity Through the Use of Concrete Details

Using the Internet

Chapter 4: Reshaping Your Essay: Global Revision

Peer Response and Review

Peer Review Checklist

Responding to Suggestions for Revision

STUDENT ESSAY: Peer-Reviewed Draft of "A Very Secret Santa"

Using a Word Processor to Revise

Revising Essays

Checking for Unity

Improving Coherence

Using the Appropriate Language Level

Making Your Language More Concrete and Specific

Finding the Right Tone

Checking Your Introductory Paragraphs and Thesis

Checking Your Topic Sentences and Body Paragraphs

Checking Your Conclusion

Completing Your Essay on Computer

Writing an Effective Title

Using the Internet

Chapter 5: Refining Your Essay: Editing and Proofreading

Combining Sentences

Merging and Submerging Related Ideas

Merging

Submerging

Coordinating and Subordinating Related Ideas

Using Coordinating Conjunctions

Using Conjunctive Adverbs/Transitional Expressions

Using Subordinating Conjunctions

Using Correlative Conjunctions

Using Hybrid Sentence Patterns

Compound Sentences

Complex Sentences

Compound-Complex Sentences

Using Periodic and Climactic Sentence Structure to Create Emphasis

Choosing Words Carefully

Striving for Parallelism

Including All Necessary Words

Avoiding Awkward Repetition

Using Only Words That Matter

Avoiding Redundancy

Avoiding Euphemisms

Using Figurative Language Appropriately

Avoiding Clichés


Learning to Use Denotation and Connotation

Using Idiomatic English

Using Active, Specific Language

Using the Internet

PART 2 : STRUCTURES

Chapter 6: Description

How Does Description Work?

Reading the Descriptive Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Thomas McGuane, Roanie

Maxine Hong Kingston, Photographs of My Parents

Hildegard Knef, From The Gift Horse

Sherman Alexie, Family Portrait

Writing the Descriptive Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Audience and Language Level

Description and Narrative

Objective Description versus Subjective Description

Structuring Your Description

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising a Descriptive Essay

STUDENT ESSAYS: Jennifer Janisz, "Help! Anyone!"

Jennifer’s Final Draft

Jennifer’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 7: Narration

How Does Narration Work?

Reading the Narrative Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Lynda Barry, The Sanctuary of School

Sandra Cisneros, Only Daughter

Annie Dillard, The Chase

George Orwell, A Hanging

Writing the Personal Narrative with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Using Time Economically

Transitions

Paragraphing and Topic Sentences

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising a Narrative

STUDENT ESSAY: Claire Reid, "After the Fray"

Claire’s Final Draft

Claire’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 8: Exemplification

How Does Exemplification Work?

Reading the Exemplification Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Phyllis Rose, Shopping and Other Spiritual Adventures in America Today

Brent Staples, Just Walk on By

Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving

Harry F. Waters, Life According to TV

Writing the Exemplification Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Sources of Examples

Relevant and Representative Examples

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising an Exemplification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Jennifer Janisz, "Three Families"

Jennifer’s Final Draft

Jennifer’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 9: Process Analysis

How Does Process Analysis Work?

Reading the Process Analysis Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Jerry Jesness, Why Johnny Can’t Fail

Joan Gould, Binding Decisions

Malcolm X, My First Conk

Umberto Eco, How Not to Use the Fax Machine and the Cellular Phone

Writing the Process Analysis Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Audience Analysis

Language Level

Voice

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Process Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Manny Meregildo, "Get the Right Job"

Manny’s Final Draft

Manny’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 10: Causal Analysis

How Does Causal Analysis Work?

Reading the Causal Analysis Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Barbara Ehrenreich, The Cult of Busyness

Natalie Angier, Is War Our Biological Destiny?

Gore Vidal, Drugs

Richard Rhodes, Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence

Writing the Causal Analysis Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Weighing the Causes or Effects

Choosing Internal Strategies

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Causal Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Noelani Jones, "Worlds Apart"

Noelani’s Final Draft

Noelani’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 11: Definition

How Does Definition Work?

Reading the Definition Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Judy Brady, Why I Want a Wife

William Raspberry, The Handicap of Definition

Annie Dillard, So This Was Adolescence

Tony Earley, The Quare Gene

Writing the Definition Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Using Brief Definitions

Using Negative Definitions

Objective Definition and Subjective Definition

Strategies for Developing a Definition

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing an Extended Definition

STUDENT ESSAY: Curtis Ray Mosley, "Trailer Park Girls"

Curtis’s Final Draft

Curtis’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 12: Classification

How Does Classification Work?

Reading the Classification Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Fran Lebowitz, The Sound of Music: Enough Already

Tom Kuntz, Not Sold by Intellectual Weight

Martin Luther King Jr., Three Types of Resistance to Oppression

Paul Fussell, Notes on Class

Writing the Classification Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Methods of Explaining Categories

Informative Classification Versus Personal Classification

Language Level

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Classification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "Fraud Alert"

Sam’s Final Draft

Sam’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 13: Comparison and Contrast

How Does Comparison/Contrast Work?

Reading the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Ellen Currie, Two Varieties of Killers

Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong in America

David Sedaris, Family Engineering

Barbara Mellix, From Outside, In

Writing the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Balanced Subjects

Using Transitions

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Comparison/Contrast Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "The Two Sides of the Aisle"

Sam’s Final Draft

Sam’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 14: Argument

How Does Argument Work?

Reading the Argument Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Walter S. Minot, Students Who Push Burgers

Deborah Tannen, The Triumph of the Yell

Caryl Rivers, What Should Be Done about Rock Lyrics?

Michael Levin, The Case for Torture

Writing the Argument Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

The Language of Argument

Supporting the Essay’s Claims

Logical Fallacies

Consider Your Audience and Purpose

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing an Argument Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "My Simple and Modest Plan"

Sam’s Final Draft

Sam’s First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 15: The Blended Essay

How Does the Blended Essay Work?

Reading the Blended Essay with a Writer’s Eye

Scott Russell Sanders, The Men We Carry in Our Minds

Anthony Bourdain, Don’t Eat Before Reading This

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, On the Fear of Death

Robert B. Reich, Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor Poorer

Writing the Blended Essay with a Reader’s Eye

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Blended Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Kevin Hunkovic, "Three Years Without Liberty"

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

PART 3 : APPLICATIONS

Chapter 16: Essay Examinations

Study for the Exam

Read the Directions

Short Answers

Paragraphs

Essays

Allocate Your Time

Interpret Key Words

Prewriting Essay Responses

Drafting Essay Responses

Sample Essay Exam Response

Chapter 17: Business Formats

E-Mail, Memos, and Business Letters

E-Mail

The Practical Context

The Rhetorical Context

Memos

Formatting

Examples

Writing Assignments

Business Letters

Formatting

Elements of the Letter

Examples

Writing Assignments

Résumés and Letters of Application

Elements of a Résumé

Elements of an Application Letter

Writing Assignments

Chapter 18: Quoting Text

General Principles for Quoting Text

Incorporating Direct Quotations: MLA Guidelines

Incorporating Direct Quotations: APA Guidelines

Chapter 19: Writing about Literature

General Guidelines for Reading Literature

General Guidelines for Writing About Literature

Writing about Fiction

Useful Terms for Writing about Fiction

Naguib Mahfouz, The Answer Is No

Analysis

Student Responses to The Answer is No

Writing about Poetry

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802

Student Response: Beauty in a Strange Context

Useful Terms for Writing About Poetry

Chapter 20: The Research Process

Narrowing Your Topic and Framing a Research Question

Beginning with Tools from the Reference Room

Using Primary and Secondary Sources

Creating a Working Bibliography

Locating Books and Articles on Your Topic

Computerized Book Catalogues

The Traditional Card Catalogue

Periodical Indexes

Electronic Databases

Searching the Internet

A Brief Glossary of Internet Terms

Internet Search Tools: URLs, Directories, and Search Engines

A Brief List of Popular Search Engines

Three Tips on Using Search Engines

Evaluating Sources

Tips on Evaluating Sources for Your Research Paper

Tips on Evaluating Electronic Sources for Your Research Paper

Taking Notes

Avoiding Plagiarism

Chapter 21: The Research Paper

General Strategies for the Research Paper

The MLA-Style Research Paper

Parenthetical (In-Text) Citations

The Works Cited List

The Basic Works Cited Format

MLA Citations--Books

MLA Citations--Periodical Articles

MLA Citations--Online Sources

MLA Citations--Miscellaneous Sources

MLA Research Paper Format

Sample Research Paper in MLA Format: Valerie Richfield, "Child Care and the Working Poor"

Checklist for MLA-Style Research Papers

The APA-Style Research Paper

In-Text Citations

The Reference List

The Basic Reference Format

APA Citations--Books

APA Citations--Periodical Articles

APA Citations--Online Sources

APA Citations--Miscellaneous Sources

APA Research Paper Format

Checklist for APA-Style Research Papers

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