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The second edition of the Writing Workshop Survival Kit offers English teachers and writing teachers in grades 5-12 a thoroughly updated and revised guide to teaching the writing process. This comprehensive, step-by-step resource is an invaluable aid for teachers who are conducting a writing workshop or managing a writing workshop in the classroom. Gary Robert Muschla explains the stages of the writing process and shows how to engage students in the dynamics of writing. The book includes activities, numerous reproducibles, and 100 mini-lessons that concentrate on various types of writing, writing techniques, and the mechanics of writing. In addition, the second edition contains new material on timely topics such as Enlisting Support for Your Writing Workshop, Using Search Engines to Find Information on the Internet, The Use of Computers in Revision, and How to Establish a Web Site to Display Student Writing.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
"Gary Muschla’s Writing Workshop Survival Kit providesmany effective strategies that will make the writing process a moreenjoyable, efficient, and productive experience for your students.They will become more confident writers who will both look forwardto and benefit from these valuable classroom-tested activities.Muschla leaves no stone unturned in this comprehensive andinsightful journey through the writing process. Writing WorkshopSurvival Kit should be a part of every writing teacher’slibrary!"
—Jack Umstatter, English teacher and author, Cold Spring HarborSchool District, Cold Spring Harbor, New York
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780787976194
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/9/2005
  • Series: J-B Ed: Survival Guides Series, #163
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 296
  • Sales rank: 1,015,135
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.02 (h) x 0.91 (d)

Meet the Author

Gary Robert Muschla, prolific author and classroom teacher, taught reading and writing for more than twenty-five years in Spotswood, New Jersey. He is the author of many books including Reading Workshop Survival Kit, Ready-to-Use Reading Proficiency Lessons & Activities, and The Writing Teacher's Book of Lists with Ready-to-Use Activities and Worksheets, all from Jossey-Bass.

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Read an Excerpt

Writing Workshop Survival Kit

By Gary Robert Muschla

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7879-7619-9

Chapter One



When I began teaching the writing workshop several years ago, I did not know what to expect. I was an experienced teacher of writing and a writer myself, and I understood and embraced the writing process. But although I had read extensively about the writing workshop, had experienced various workshops, and had gone through in-service training, I was still uncertain. I was concerned that I was stepping into yet another one of those new ideas in education that promises great success but comes up short. I felt I already had an effective writing program and worried that my students would not do as well in a new one. However, I was also drawn to the concept of the writing workshop, which provides a forum where teacher and students become partners in the experience of learning. I started that school year a hopeful skeptic and soon became a believer.

The writing workshop is much more than a program designed to help children acquire the skills necessary for written language. It is a classroom in which you and your students form bonds that become the foundation of learning. In the writing workshop, your teaching becomes individualized as students focus on topics that matter to them and you respond to their efforts. Because students write about their interests, worries, and dreams, the material of the writing workshop arises from the fabric of their lives.

The model of the writing workshop offered in this book (there are a number of variations) starts with a five- to ten-minute mini-lesson, after which your students work on their own pieces. During writing time, the classroom buzzes with a murmur of productive noise. You circulate to check writing progress, confer with individual students or groups, provide guidance, and answer questions. Your students may be engaged in various activities: prewriting, drafting, reading, revising, editing, or conferring with you, a partner, or a peer group. The entire classroom is used, with activities taking place at the students' desks, at tables, or at your desk.

Writing is a powerful tool for learning. It enables us to analyze and synthesize our thoughts, and thereby discover new ideas. When we write, we become conscious of ourselves. We define ourselves and come to understand our lives better. Through the writing workshop, you will help your students master the skills that will enable them to express themselves with clarity and competence.

The Writing Process

Traditional writing instruction focuses on teaching students the features of different types of writing through examples. The theory assumes that once students understand the different models-for example, narratives, editorials, essays, and various kinds of fiction-they will be able to write them.

Writing instruction that focuses on the writing process, in contrast, concentrates on the way real writers work. Writing is a process composed of at least five stages: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Although the stages are distinct, the process is recursive. Authors often move back and forth through these stages as they work.

Prewriting is the starting point. It is the period during which an author discovers his or her topic, decides on his or her audience and purpose, generates or researches ideas, and considers a form for his or her writing.

Drafting begins when the author starts writing. During this stage, the author switches between writing and reading. She may rewrite some of her work or reformulate her original ideas and return to the prewriting stage.

Next is revising: adding, deleting, rewriting, and polishing. Authors may move back and forth through drafting and prewriting several times as they rethink their work and revise.

The editing stage is the final preparation for publishing. This is when remaining corrections of mechanics are made and the piece is put into its finished form. Even here, though, writers may decide that more revision is necessary and shift back to some of the previous stages.

Publishing refers to the sharing of writing with someone else. For students, this most often is teachers, peers, parents, or the public. It may also include submitting material to traditional and online magazines, newspapers, or newsletters.

Your New Role

You will become a nurturer, facilitator, and promoter in your writing workshop rather than a mere giver of information. Aside from mini-lessons, you will spend your time working with individual students and small groups. Since modeling can be a powerful motivator and teacher, you may write along with your students from time to time.

You will perform many tasks in your writing workshop. During the class, you might help one student narrow his topic, suggest ways in which another can improve her opening, or listen to yet another as she explains how she intends to develop her narrative about moving into a new home. From there you might meet with a group that is sharing drafts and seeking peer reactions. You will guide, encourage, and applaud students in their writing efforts and help them discover new insights, make connections among ideas, analyze information, and communicate their thoughts and feelings. You will give them personal feedback that reinforces their learning. The accompanying list, "The Teacher's Role in the Writing Workshop," suggests some of the many possible activities in which you will be engaged.

Teachers who are starting writing workshops often express three major concerns. The first is that as they circulate around the room helping individuals and small groups, other students will stop working and become disruptive. The second is that the writing workshop may run fine with small classes but not with large ones. The third is ensuring that all students will have an opportunity to learn the skills necessary for competent writing.

A well-run workshop overcomes these fears because the students become involved with their writing. Given the chance and encouragement to express themselves-to share of themselves-students become more willing to write. When students are involved with the class, disruption is reduced, even large classes can be managed efficiently, and students more easily acquire the skills they need for effective composition.

You ensure the dissemination of information and skills through mini-lessons. The material shared at the beginning of each class eventually builds a foundation of knowledge that can be referred to during individual and group conferences. Thus, the material introduced is reinforced throughout the year.

Of course, as in any class, rules must be made and expectations set and expressed. These basics are up to each teacher, and you should establish the rules for your classroom in a way you feel comfortable. At the least, you should insist that talking is to be done in quiet voices, that students conduct themselves in an appropriate manner, and that only writing-related activities may be done in the writing workshop. (For more information on discipline, see "When Discipline Is Necessary" in Section Two.)

The Teacher's Role in the Writing Workshop

At the beginning of the writing workshop, the teacher may present a mini-lesson and then spend the rest of the period engaged in any or all of the following:

Helping students find topics

Helping students focus topics

Answering student questions about writing

Guiding students in their research efforts

Listening to a student read a passage from his or her writing

Offering suggestions for revision

Working with a group brainstorming ideas

Showing a student how to reduce clutter in his writing

Helping a student organize her ideas

Writing along with students

Offering encouragement

Applauding a student's efforts

Conferring with students over finished pieces

Helping a student sort through his thoughts

Explaining the use of a thesaurus

Helping students with technology; for example, when using word processing software, moving a block of text during revision Directing traffic flow around the room

Reminding students of classroom rules

Keeping students on task Assisting students in creating a class magazine

Viewing Web sites for writers with students

A Model of a Typical Writing Workshop

Every writing workshop reflects the personality and attitudes of its teacher. You will no doubt develop your workshop in a way that best meets the needs of your students and teaching environment. There are, in fact, many variations of the writing workshop; they differ slightly in structure but not in content. The model presented here is one of the more common ones.

The writing workshop starts with a five- to ten-minute mini-lesson that focuses on one skill or concept. The students may use the information of the mini-lesson right away or maybe not for several days or even weeks.

After the mini-lesson, students work on their writing for approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes. They may be writing in journals, searching through idea folders, or writing a story or article. It is unlikely that all students will be doing the same thing. During this time, the teacher circulates around the room and works with individual students and small groups. Along with providing help and encouragement, she also reminds students of the rules of the classroom and keeps them on task.

The last ten to fifteen minutes of the class are reserved for sharing. This may be done using the author's chair, editing partners, or peer groups. For the author's chair, students take center stage and read their work to the class. Students may first describe what they have been working on and then read from their work in progress. The rest of the class listens and may ask questions or offer suggestions. For partners or peer groups, students read their work to their partner or members of their groups, who may then comment on the student's work and offer advice or reactions. (For more information about peer groups, see "Peer Conferences" in Section Five.)

Here is a breakdown for a forty-five-minute period:

1. Mini-lesson: five to ten minutes

2. Writing time: twenty to twenty-five minutes

3. Sharing: ten to fifteen minutes

There is much flexibility within the general framework. Instead of providing a mini-lesson each day, some teachers offer mini-lessons every other day; some prefer to include a ten-minute silent writing time after the mini-lesson and reduce the general writing and sharing time; some schedule sharing only two or three days per week. You should organize your workshop in a way that is most effective for you and your students.

I like to have all students share after each class because sharing provides closure and keeps the students moving forward. Some students, if they find that there is no sharing that day, will ease off in their work. I encourage students to share even if they merely tell their editing partner or members of their peer group how they searched for a topic. Working together like this promotes an atmosphere of friendship and support as well as helps to spread understanding of the writing process. In time you are likely to see a company of writers emerge in your classroom.

Scheduling Your Writing Workshop

Writing workshops that buzz with the activity of students working on a variety of tasks may appear to the uninitiated to be disorganized and chaotic. In fact, most of these classrooms are built on a firm foundation of efficient management and a practical schedule.

A consistent schedule is the starting point of a successful workshop. While the ideal is to set up your writing workshop for a full period, five days per week, many teachers do not have that amount of time. You can run a successful workshop meeting three or four times a week, but at fewer than three, you will have trouble maintaining continuity and keeping students interested. Some teachers incorporate the writing workshop into their English classes. Assuming they meet five days per week, they may use three classes for the workshop and spend the other two on literature or spelling and other language skills. Here, too, at fewer than three meetings per week, it may be difficult to sustain the thought and emotion necessary for an effective writing workshop.

When students know that they have writing workshop each day or every Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday, for example, they come to the workshop ready to write. When students meet regularly for writing workshop, their minds become engaged with the writing process.

In schools where it is impossible to meet regularly for the writing workshop throughout the year, the workshop may be scheduled for fixed meetings during part of the year. The writing workshop may rotate with courses like computer literacy, music, art, home economics, or industrial arts for sessions that span several weeks. Regular meetings during an eight- to ten-week period are preferable to irregular or limited meetings throughout the year.

Promoting Your Writing Workshop

Unless your district has made a commitment to implement writing workshops in place of traditional English classes, you will probably need to promote and explain what you are doing to administrators, colleagues, and parents. You may find some resistance at first, because the writing workshop is quite different from classes in which the teacher stands before the students, offers information through lectures, and then assigns homework that reinforces the skills taught during the lesson. The writing workshop instead fosters a learning environment in which self-discovery and cooperation become paramount.

The best way to explain the writing workshop to administrators, supervisors, and colleagues is to invite them into your class. First, however, refer them to articles about the writing workshop, or provide them with a written description of your own. When they come to your class, describe what is going on and let them see how the workshop functions. Invite them back for additional visits so that they can gain an understanding of the many activities that are a part of your workshop. Sharing samples of your students' writing-either individual papers or class magazines or on class or school Web sites-is a way to show the results of your workshop.

You should inform parents about the writing workshop early in the school year. At back-to-school nights, I tell the parents of my students that I will be teaching a writing workshop instead of the traditional English class. I explain what the writing workshop is and mention that it is being used successfully throughout the country. I emphasize that their children will continue to learn the skills for effective language, including grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The single greatest concern parents have is that their children may be writing but they are not learning grammar. To many parents, writing and grammar are separate disciplines. I explain that they are inseparable. No one can write effectively without understanding grammar, but knowing grammar without being able to apply it to written language is a useless skill. Sending home copies of student magazines, making sure that the writing of your students appears on school Web sites and in school and parent-teacher organization newsletters, and liberally exhibiting the work of your students on hallway bulletin boards can quicken the acceptance of your workshop.

I always encourage parents to become involved with their children's writing experiences. Their support at home can be a significant factor in their children's progress and overall achievement. The accompanying "Things Parents Can Do to Foster Good Writing Habits in Their Children" on page 11 is an excellent handout at back-to-school night and parent-teacher conferences.

In many cases, your students will become the best advocates of your writing workshop. Their enthusiasm for the workshop will be clear, and they will speak well of it to others. That, coupled with samples of their writing, will be your strongest promotion.

When students write about topics that interest them in an environment that supports the risk taking that is vital to conceiving and developing fresh ideas, their minds and imaginations become involved with their material. When they know that their work will be shared, that others will read what they have written, and that their writing matters, students strive for precision and clarity. Of all the advantages the writing workshop offers, perhaps these are most important.


Excerpted from Writing Workshop Survival Kit by Gary Robert Muschla Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

About This Book v

How to Use This Book vi

About the Author vii

Acknowledgments viii

Part One:The Dynamics of the Writing Workshop

Section 1: An Overview of the Writing Workshop 3

The Writing Process 4

Your New Role 5

The Teacher’s Role in the Writing Workshop 6

A Model of a Typical Writing Workshop 7

Scheduling Your Writing Workshop 8

Promoting Your Writing Workshop 8

Enlisting Support for Your Writing Workshop 10

Reproducible: Things Parents Can Do to Foster Good

Writing Habits in Their Children

Section 2: Managing Your Writing Workshop 13

Reproducible: Student Responsibilities in the WritingWorkshop

Creating and Maintaining a Writing Environment 15

The Writing Environment 17

Reproducible: Student Writers’ Tools of the Trade

Reproducible: Rules for Working in Groups

Planning Your Workshop Lessons 20

Managing Time in the Writing Workshop 21

Keeping Students Motivated 22

Time-Savers 23

When Discipline Is Necessary 24

Evaluation 28

Monitoring the Progress of Your Students 29

Reproducible: Daily Log

Writing Across the Curriculum 32

Reproducible: Skills Analysis Sheet

Reproducible: Checklist for Types of Writing

Part Two:The Stages of the Writing Process

Section 3: Prewriting 37

Prewriting Strategies 37

Freewriting 37

Activity 1: A Freewriting Exercise

Reproducible: Freewriting Sample Clustering 38

Activity 2: Creating Clusters

Reproducible: A Sample Cluster

Idea Listing 41

Activity 3: Making an Idea List

Reproducible: Sample Idea List

Brainstorming 41

Activity 4: Brainstorming for Ideas

Reproducible: Brainstorming Guide

Rehearsing 45

Activity 5: Rehearsing for Ideas

Reproducible: A Prewriting Warm-Up

Role Playing 45

Activity 6: Role Playing to Find Ideas

Reproducible: Choose a Role

Researching 46

Activity 7: Using the Internet for Research

Reproducible: Using Search Engines to Find Information on theInternet

Organizing Writing 50

Reproducible: A Structure Form

Drawing and Diagramming 52

Journals 52

Reproducible: Writing Journal Guidelines for Students

Idea Folders 54

Personal Experience 54

Activity 8: Personal Experience and Ideas

Reproducible: Inventory of Personal Experience

Observation 56

Activity 9: Observation and Ideas

Reproducible: What Do You See?

Angles and Viewpoints 56

Activity 10: Viewing from All Points and Angles

Reproducible: Seeing All Sides

Using Questions to Explore Topics 58

Activity 11: Focusing Topics

Reproducible: Exploring a Writing Topic

Section 4: Drafting 63

Writing the Draft 63

Activity 12: Questions to Ask During Drafting

The Foundations of Good Writing 64

Activity 13: The Elements of Good Writing

Strategies to Aid Drafting 65

Section 5: Revision 69

Revision Mechanics 69

Teaching Revision 69

Revising for Unity 70

Revising for Order 70

Revising for Conciseness 70

Activity 14: Revision Strategies

The Use of Computers in Revision 72

Reproducible: Computers and Writers

Revision Pitfalls to Avoid 74

Activity 15: A Revision Plan

Writing Conferences 75

Activity 16: A Role-Played Writing Conference

Reproducible: A Writing Conference Started by the Teacher

Reproducible: A Writing Conference Started by a Student

Some Conference Strategies 79

Peer Conferences 80

Reproducible: Peer Conference Questions

Activity 17: Strategies for Effective PeerConferences

Reproducible: Peer Group Guidelines

Reproducible: Revision Checklist

Section 6: Editing 85

Strategies for Teaching Editing Skills 85

Activity 18: Using a Dictionary

Reproducible: Editing Reminders

Activity 19: Using a Thesaurus

Activity 20: Using an Author’s Stylebook

Editing Partners 89

Editing Groups 89

Reproducible: Editor’s Checklist

Activity 21: Using Editor’s Marks

Proofreading 92

Section 7: Publishing 93

The Author’s Chair 93

Peer Group Sharing 94

Computers and Publishing in the Writing Workshop 94

A Word on Copiers 95

E-Mail as a Means of Sharing and Publishing 95

Reproducible: A Model Release Form

Reproducible: E-Mail Etiquette for Writers

Producing Class Magazines 98

Tips for Producing Class Magazines 100

Producing Books Written by Students 101

Web Sites for Sharing Writing 101

Web Sites That Publish the Writing of Students 102

How to Establish a Web Site to Display Student Writing 103

Still More Ways to Share 104

Submitting Student Writing to Magazines 104

Activity 22: Submitting Writing to Magazines

Reproducible: Tips for Submitting to Magazines

Activity 23: Writing a Query Letter

Reproducible: Sample Query Letter

Reproducible: Print Markets for Student Writers

Part Three:Using Mini-Lessons in the Writing Workshop

Section 8: Mini-Lessons for Types of Writing 113

1. Writing Personal Narratives 114

Reproducible: A Big Splash

2. Writing Essays 116

Reproducible: Slowing Global Warming by Saving Energy

3. Strategies for Answering Essay Test Questions 118

Reproducible: Essay Test-Taking Tips

4. Writing How-to Articles 120

Reproducible: How to Make a Budget

5. Writing Straight News Articles 122

Reproducible: Bat Attacks Alarm Town

Reproducible: Taking Apart a Newspaper Article

6. Persuasive Writing 125

Reproducible: Save Trees and the Environment by Recycling


Reproducible: Analyzing a Persuasive Essay

7. Writing Friendly Letters 128

Reproducible: Sample Friendly Letter

8. Writing Business Letters 130

Reproducible: Sample Business Letters

9. Writing Book Reviews 132

Reproducible: A Sample Book Review: A Wrinkle in Time byMadeleine L’Engle

10. Writing Movie Reviews 134

Reproducible: A Sample Movie Review: The Babe

11. Writing Fiction 136

Reproducible: The Valentine’s Day Dance

12. Writing Advertising 138

Reproducible: Advertising Fundamentals

Reproducible: Advertisement Review

13. Writing Nonrhyming Poems 141

Reproducible: Nonrhyming Poems

14. Writing Rhyming Poems 143

Reproducible: “Eldorado” by Edgar Allan Poe

15. Writing Plays 145

Reproducible: The Parts of a Play

Reproducible: Ghost Hunt

16. Writing Screenplays 148

Reproducible: The Test

Reproducible: Screenplay Vocabulary

Section 9: Mini-Lessons for the Art of Writing 151

17. Writing Effective Leads 152

Reproducible: Leads

Reproducible: Sample Leads

18. Organization for Nonfiction Writing 155

Reproducible: Vanishing Rain Forests

19. Writing Conclusions for Nonfiction Pieces 157

20. Conciseness 158

Reproducible: Cutting Clutter

21. Avoiding Intensifiers and Qualifiers 160

22. Active and Passive Constructions 161

23. Choosing Strong Verbs for Writing 162

24. Writing Effective Transitions 163

Reproducible: Nonverbal Communication

25. Developing Imagery 165

Reproducible: Returning to the Beach

Reproducible: Sense and Image

26. Tone 168

Reproducible: How You Say It

27. Comparing and Contrasting 170

Reproducible: Comparing and Contrasting—Nonfiction

Reproducible: Comparing and Contrasting—Fiction

28. Avoiding Clichés 173

Reproducible: Clichés

29. Conducting Interviews 175

Reproducible: Guide to Great Interviews

30. Using Figures of Speech: Similes, Metaphors, andPersonification 177

Reproducible: Figures of Speech

31. Using Onomatopoeia 179

Reproducible: Onomatopoeic Words

32. Using Alliteration 181

Reproducible: A Sample of Alliteration

33. Conflict 183

Reproducible: The Runaway

34. Characterization 185

Reproducible: Revealing Character

Reproducible: Character Chart

35. Writing Dialogue 189

Reproducible: Dialogue Samples

36. Developing Settings 191

Reproducible: Setting Samples

37. Using Flashbacks 193

Reproducible: The Party

38. Foreshadowing 195

Reproducible: The Ranch

39. Constructing Effective Climaxes 197

40. The First-Person Point of View 198

Reproducible: First-Person Point of View Fact Sheet

41. The Third-Person Point of View 200

Reproducible: Third-Person Point of View Fact Sheet

42. The Limited Point of View 202

Reproducible: Example of Limited Point of View: Final Batter

43. Multiple Point of View 204

Reproducible: Example of Multiple Points of View: FinalBatter

44. Avoiding Plagiarism 206

Reproducible: Citing Sources

45. Choosing Titles 208

Reproducible: Titles

Section 10: Mini-Lessons for the Mechanics of Writing211

46. Types of Sentences 212

Reproducible: Sentences

47. Sentence Patterns 214

Reproducible: Examples of Sentence Patterns

48. Subject and Verb Agreement 216

49. Compound Subject and Verb Agreement 217

50. Subject and Verb Agreement with Intervening Phrases 218

51. Subject and Verb Agreement: Doesn’t or Don’t219

52. Subject and Verb Agreement: There’s, Here’s, andWhere’s 220

53. Subject and Verb Agreement: Indefinite Pronouns 221

54. Subject (Pronoun) and Verb Agreement 222

55. Agreement of Pronouns and Antecedents 223

56. Possessive Nouns 224

57. Paragraphing 225

Reproducible: Developing Paragraphs, Sample 1

Reproducible: Developing Paragraphs, Sample 2

58. Varying Sentences to Make Writing Interesting 228

59. Combining Sentences for Variation 229

Reproducible: Example of Combining Sentences

60. Sentence Fragments 231

Reproducible: Find the Fragments

61. Run-On Sentences 233

Reproducible: Finding and Fixing Run-Ons

62. Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers 235

63. Tenses: Choosing the Present or the Past 236

64. The Past Perfect Tense: Showing Previous Past Action 237

65. Using Did or Done Correctly 238

66. Writing with Sounds That Are Not Words 239

67. Avoiding Double Negatives 240

68. Using Italics for Titles and Names 241

69. Using Italics for Emphasis 242

70. Using Quotation Marks for Titles 243

71. Using Quotation Marks for Emphasis 244

72. Using Parentheses 245

73. Using the Dash 246

74. Using Hyphens with Compound Words and Numbers 247

75. Writing Lists with Colons and Commas 248

76. Spelling Strategy 1: Dictionaries and Spell Checkers 249

77. Spelling Strategy 2: Proper Pronunciation 250

78. Spelling Strategy 3: Spelling Confusions 251

Reproducible: Spelling Confusions

79. Spelling Strategy 4: Personal Spelling Lists 253

80. Overusing So and Then 254

81. Using Affect and Effect Correctly 255

82. Using All Right and (Not) Alright 256

83. Using Among and Between Correctly 257

84. Using Bad and Badly Correctly 258

85. Avoiding Could Of and Similar Constructions 259

86. Using Farther and Further Correctly 260

87. Using Fewer and Less Correctly 261

88. Using Good and Well Correctly 262

89. Using In and Into Correctly 263

90. Using It’s and Its Correctly 264

91. Using There, Their, and They’re Correctly 265

92. Using Who’s and Whose Correctly 266

93. Using Your and You’re Correctly 267

94. Using Lay and Lie Correctly 268

95. Using Lose and Loose Correctly 269

96. Using Off Rather Than Off Of 270

97. Using Sit and Set Correctly 271

98. Using Than and Then Correctly 272

99. Using To, Too, and Two Correctly 273

100. Using Who and Whom Correctly 274

Resources 275

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