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X Window Programming From Scratch

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X Window Programming From Scratch shows how to create a graphical user interface and accomplish graphic rendering using the X Window System software. It offers a unique approach to skill development by leading you through basic to very advanced concepts. This book provides a guide to the Linux operating system for application development, step-by-step instruction to the correct usage and syntax of C, a comprehensive introduction of the X Window System for interface creation and graphic rendering, and a complete ...
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Overview

X Window Programming From Scratch shows how to create a graphical user interface and accomplish graphic rendering using the X Window System software. It offers a unique approach to skill development by leading you through basic to very advanced concepts. This book provides a guide to the Linux operating system for application development, step-by-step instruction to the correct usage and syntax of C, a comprehensive introduction of the X Window System for interface creation and graphic rendering, and a complete structured project to "learn by doing."
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Introduces programming in the X Window system environment using the C language and the Linux operating system. The second half of the book walks through the assembly of a functional graphics editor application. An appendix provides vector font sets. The CD-ROM contains project source code, shell scripts, and Red Hat Linux 6.2. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789723727
  • Publisher: Que
  • Publication date: 7/25/2000
  • Series: From Scratch Series
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Pages: 800
  • Product dimensions: 7.43 (w) x 9.14 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Section One: Starting Points.

I. ABSOLUTE ZERO.

1. UNIX for Developers.
The man Command. Organization and Navigation.
Directories. Permissions. chmod. The cd Command.
The C Compiler. Object Files. Source Files. The vi Editor. The make Utility.
The cc Command. Makefile.
System Tools and Useful Commands.
grep, Pipes, Redirection, and more. The find Command.
Next Steps.

2. Programming Constructs.
Decisions.
The if Statement. The else Statement. Types of Conditions. The if else Statement. The case Statement.
Loops.
The for Loop. The while Loop. The do while Loop.
Functions.
Declarations. Return Type. Function Name. Parameters. Definition. The return Statement.
Data.
Data Types. Next Steps.

3. A Word on C.
Hello World.
Comment Tokens. The Function main. Code Bodies. Variable Scope. Built-In Functions. Memory Management. Dynamic Memory Allocation. Memory Leaks. Definitions and Macros.
Conclusion. Next Steps.

II. THE PIECES OF X.

4. Windowing Concepts.
Origins of the X Window System. The Pieces of X.
Client/Server Model. Window Hierarchy.
Next Steps.

5. Widget Sets.
The Power and Convenience of Using Widget Sets. The Athena Widget Set.
The Core Widget.Widgets That Manage Other Widgets. The Motif Widgets.
Next Steps.

6. Components of an X Window Application.
Connecting to the X Server.
Employing Widget Resources Using Variable Argument Lists.
Creating the Application Interface.
Creating Buttons. Creating Pixmap Icons. Assigning Actions.
Managing Windows. Processing Events. Summary. Next Steps.

7. Xlib Graphic Primitives.
The Graphics Context.
The GC Function. GCForeground and GCBackground. GCLineWidth. GCTile.
Graphic Primitive Functions.
XDrawPoint. XDrawLine. XDrawRectangle. XDrawArc. Filled Graphics.
Next Steps.

III. BACK TO SCHOOL.

8. Vector Versus Raster Graphics.
Vector Graphics. Raster Graphics. Next Steps.

9. Object Bounds Checking.
Point-Array-Based Object Bounds. Arc Object Bounds. Employing Object Bounds. Next Steps.

10. Trigonometric and Geometric Functions.
Calculating Point and Line Intersections. Calculating Slope. Calculating Point and Arc Intersections. Next Steps.

11. Graphic Transformations.
Moving.
Moving a Line. Moving an Arc.
Scaling.
Scaling a Line. Scaling an Arc.
Rotating.
Rotating a Line. Rotating an Arc.
Next Steps.

12. Coordinate Systems.
Rectangular Coordinates. Polar Coordinate System. Next Steps.

Section Two: Graphics Editor Application.

IV. LAYING OUT THE PARTS.

13. Application Structure.
Project Structure.
Laying Out the User Interface.
Parsing the Command Line. The getopt Function. The XtVaGetApplicationResources Function. Setting Up a Canvas. Building the Project. Next Steps.

14. Program Flow.
Processing Events. X Event Hooks.
Widget Callbacks. Event Handlers. Widget Translation Tables.
Next Steps.

15. Common Object Definition.
Line Object Data Structure. Text Object Data Structure.
Understanding Vector Fonts.
The GXText Data Structure. Arc Object Data Structure. Common Object Data Structure. Next Steps.

16. Object Manipulation.
Copying an Object. Deleting an Object. Refreshing Objects. Parsing for an Object. Managing Object Handles. Managing the Status of an Object. Processing User Navigation of Objects. Next Steps.

17. Utilities and Tools.
Common Object Creation.
Linked List Management.
Creating a Graphics Context.
Graphics Context Tiling.
Using the Cursor as State Indicator. Next Steps.

18. File Formats.
Understanding Files. Binary File Formatting. ASCII File Formatting.
Tagged File Formats. Position-Specific File Formats.
Magic Numbers. Next Steps.

19. Save and Restore.
File Format Strategy. Save and Restore Program Hooks. Common-Object Save and Restore. Object-Specific Save and Restore. Next Steps.

V. ADDING OBJECTS TO THE EDITOR.

20. Latex Line Object.
Creating a Latex Line Object. Drawing and Erasing a Line Object. Finding a Line Object. Selecting and Deselecting a Line Object. Moving a Line Object. Scaling a Line Object. Copying a Line Object. Saving and Restoring a Line Object. Next Steps.

21. Pencil Line Object.
Creating a Pencil Object. Pencil Object Management. Next Steps.

22. Object Templates.
The Box Object. The Arrow Object. Next Steps.

23. Arc Object.
Creating an Arc Object. Drawing and Erasing an Arc Object. Finding an Arc Object. Selecting and Deselecting an Arc Object. Moving an Arc Object. Scaling an Arc Object. Copying an Arc Object. Saving and Restoring an Arc Object. Next Steps.

24. Vector Text Object.
Creating a Text Object. Drawing and Erasing a Text Object. Finding a Text Object. Selecting and Deselecting a Text Object. Moving a Text Object. Scaling a Text Object. Copying a Text Object. Saving and Restoring a Text Object. Next Steps.

VI. ADDING A PRINT DRIVER.

25. Introduction to PostScript.
PostScript. Learning PostScript.
Stacks.
PostScript Commands.
Comments.
PostScript Programming. Viewing PostScript Files.
Comments Understood by Ghostscript.
Next Steps.

26. Color Versus Black and White.
Determining a Printer's Capability. Defining Color Images for Black and White Printers. Next Steps.

27. Working with XImages and Colormaps.
Printing the Canvas. Creating an XImage. Creating a PostScript Prolog. Parsing the X Colormap. Writing the PostScript Page Definition File. Directing the Output to a Printer or File. Next Steps.

VII. WHAT'S NEXT?

28. Extending the Graphics Editor.
Attributes.
Color. Line Attributes. Arc Angles.
Rotating Objects. Next Steps.

29 Adding Context-Sensitive Help.
Processing Help-Related Events. Widget Paths. Relating Widgets to Text. Next Steps.

VIII. APPENDIXES.

Appendix A: Command Shells and Scripting.
UNIX Command Shells.
Command Shell Environment.
Scripting with the Bourne Shell.
Shell Variables. Writing a Script with Function Calls. Debugging Shell Scripts.

Appendix B: Application Layout Code Listing.
make.defines File Contents. GNUmakefile File Contents. gxMain.c File Contents. gxGraphics.c File Contents. gxGx.c File Contents. gxArc.c File Contents. gxLine.c File Contents. gxText.c File Contents. gxGraphics.h File Contents. gxIcons.h File Contents. gxBitmaps.h File Contents. gxProtos.h File Contents.

Appendix C: Additional Vector Font Sets and vector_chars.h.
Triplex Bold Italic Vector Font Set. The vector_chars.h Header File.

Index.
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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 6, 2000

    Writing a Graphics Editor using Linux, X Windows and C

    <P> Dear Readers, <P> I am in awe at the overwhelming positive response my book has received and sincerely hope that you, too, enjoy this work. <P> The idea for the book grew from the realization that software development is the combination of many disciplines. In order to write a computer program, you must know something about the operating system, programming constructs, a programming language, the graphics environment, and have an interesting idea for a project. 'X Window Programming from Scratch' provides detailed instruction on each of these elements and more. <P> My introduction to the X Window System began shortly after its release from MIT in the mid-1980s. I started programming in Linux shortly thereafter by downloading Debian Linux (v.96 if I remember correctly) from the Internet and working for days to install it. This experience turned to passion and has taken me to three continents and a dozen countries where I have instructed, developed, and debugged in C, C++, Java, X Windows, Motif, and even served as a system administrator. This text reflects many of the lessons I have learned over the years and I am confident it will be a welcome addition to your personal library both as a project book and as a reference. <P> A word of caution, however, as this book is not for the faint of heart! <P> The text guides you through the Linux operating system from the application developer's point of view. It introduces programming constructs and how to accomplish them using the C programming language. Further, it provides a comprehensive introduction to windowing environments and specifically the X Window System. And finally, it introduces the PostScript print language and how to write print drivers. The point of all this instruction is to lead you through a project to author a Graphics Editor application, so there is even some trigonometric and geometric mathematics thrown in for good measure. <P> When you complete this text you will be comfortable using Linux for application development (to include constructing project Makefiles), you will be an advanced C and X Window programmer, and lastly you will have a working Graphics Editor application capable of drawing, scaling, and moving lines, shapes, and text objects. The project also includes save and restore capabilities as well as a PostScript print driver. <P> I trust you are up to the challenge! <P> Regards, <P> John

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