Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year-History of the Human Body

Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year-History of the Human Body

4.2 85
by Neil Shubin

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Why do we look the way we do? What does the human hand have in common with the wing of a fly? Are breasts, sweat glands, and scales connected in some way? To better understand the inner workings of our bodies and to trace the origins of many of today's most common diseases, we have to turn to unexpected sources: worms, flies, and even fish.

Neil Shubin, a


Why do we look the way we do? What does the human hand have in common with the wing of a fly? Are breasts, sweat glands, and scales connected in some way? To better understand the inner workings of our bodies and to trace the origins of many of today's most common diseases, we have to turn to unexpected sources: worms, flies, and even fish.

Neil Shubin, a leading paleontologist and professor of anatomy who discovered Tiktaalik—the "missing link" that made headlines around the world in April 2006—tells the story of evolution by tracing the organs of the human body back millions of years, long before the first creatures walked the earth. By examining fossils and DNA, Shubin shows us that our hands actually resemble fish fins, our head is organized like that of a long-extinct jawless fish, and major parts of our genome look and function like those of worms and bacteria.

Shubin makes us see ourselves and our world in a completely new light. Your Inner Fish is science writing at its finest—enlightening, accessible, and told with irresistible enthusiasm.

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“A delightful introduction to our skeletal structure, viscera and other vital parts—and evidence that learning the secrets of the human body need not unhinge you. . . . [Shubin] is a warm and disarming guide. . . . Future researchers, aware that the ingredients of our evolutionary precursors are part of the human recipe, may well find new ways to prevent the wear and tear on our fish-begotten bodies. And who knows? Maybe one or two of them will have had their first taste of the marvels of human evolution in Neil Shubin’s anatomy class.” —Los Angeles Times

“With infectious enthusiasm, unfailing clarity, and laugh-out-loud humor, Neil Shubin has created a book on paleontology, genetics, genomics, and anatomy that is almost impossible to put down. In telling the story of why we are who we are, Shubin does more than show us our inner fish; he awakens and excites the inner scientist in us all.” —Pauline Chen, author of Final Exam

Your Inner Fish is my favorite sort of book—an intelligent, exhilarating, and compelling scientific adventure story, one which will change forever how you understand what it means to be human. . . . Shubin is not only a distinguished scientist, but a wonderfully lucid and elegant writer; he is an irrepressibly enthusiastic teacher whose humor and intelligence and spellbinding narrative make this book an absolute delight. Your Inner Fish is not only a great read; it marks the debut of a science writer of the first rank.” —Oliver Sacks,

“The antievolution crowd is always asking where the missing links in the descent of man are. Well, paleontologist Shubin actually discovered one. . . . A crackerjack comparative anatomist, he uses his find to launch a voyage of discovery about the evolutionary evidence we can readily see at hand. . . . Shubin relays all this exciting evidence and reasoning so clearly that no general-interest library should be without this book.” —Booklist (starred review)

“A skillful writer, paleontologist Shubin conveys infectious enthusiasm. . . . Even readers with only a layperson’s knowledge of evolution will learn marvelous things about the unity of all organisms since the beginning of life.” —Kirkus Reviews (starred review)

“Fish paleontologist Shubin illuminates the subject of evolution with humor and clarity in this compelling look at how the human body evolved into its present state. . . . Shubin moves smoothly through the anatomical spectrum. . . . [He] excels at explaining the science, making each discovery an adventure.”
Publishers Weekly

“I was hooked from the first chapter of Your Inner Fish. Creationists will want this book banned because it presents irrefutable evidence for a transitional creature that set the stage for the journey from sea to land. This engaging book combines the excitement of discovery with the rigors of great scholarship to provide a convincing case of evolution from fish to man.”
—Don Johanson, director, Institute of Human Origins; discoverer of “Lucy”

“In this extraordinary book, Neil Shubin takes us on an epic expedition to arctic wastelands, where his team discovered amazing new fossil evidence of creatures that bridge the gap between fish and land-living animals. . . .With clarity and wit, Shubin shows us how exciting it is to be in the new age of discovery in evolutionary biology.”
—Mike Novacek, author of Terra: Our 100 Million Year Ecosystem and the Threats That Now Put It at Risk

"Cleverly weaving together adventures in paleontology with very accessible science, Neil Shubin reveals the many surprisingly deep connections between our anatomy and that of fish, reptiles, and other creatures. You will never look at your body in the same way again—examine, embrace, and exalt Your Inner Fish!"
—Sean Carroll, author of The Making of Fittest and Endless Forms Most Beautiful

"If you thought paleontology was all about Jurassic Park, take a look at this eye-opening book. Shubin takes us back 375 million years, to a time when a strange fish-like creature swam (or crawled) in shallow streams. Come along on this thrilling paleontological journey and learn how living things—including you—got to be what they are."
—Richard Ellis, author of Encyclopedia of the Sea

"The human story didn't start with the first bipeds; it began literally billions of years ago. In this easy-reading volume, Shubin shows us how to discover that long and fascinating history in the structure of our own bodies while weaving in a charming account of his own scientific journey. This is the ideal book for anyone who wants to explore beyond the usual anthropocentric account of human origins."
—Ian Tattersall, curator, American Museum of Natural History

Publishers Weekly

Fish paleontologist Shubin illuminates the subject of evolution with humor and clarity in this compelling look at how the human body evolved into its present state. Parsing the millennia-old genetic history of the human form is a natural project for Shubin, who chairs the department of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago and was co-discoverer of Tiktaalik, a 375-million-year-old fossil fish whose flat skull and limbs, and finger, toe, ankle and wrist bones, provide a link between fish and the earliest land-dwelling creatures. Shubin moves smoothly through the anatomical spectrum, finding ancient precursors to human teeth in a 200-million-year-old fossil of the mouse-size "part animal, part reptile" tritheledont; he also notes cellular similarities between humans and sponges. Other fossils reveal the origins of our senses, from the eye to that "wonderful Rube Goldberg contraption" the ear. Shubin excels at explaining the science, making each discovery an adventure, whether it's a Pennsylvania roadcut or a stony outcrop beset by polar bears and howling Arctic winds. "I can imagine few things more beautiful or intellectually profound than finding the basis for our humanity... nestled inside some of the most humble creatures that ever lived," he writes, and curious readers are likely to agree. Illus. (Jan. 15)

Copyright 2007 Reed Business Information
Library Journal

For his first book, Shubin (anatomy, Univ. of Chicago) has written a lively little volume for a general readership on the evolutionary legacy, bequeathed to us by our ancestors, of our bodies. The author is especially qualified to address this topic: an evolutionary developmental biologist with groundbreaking research programs in both paleontology and developmental genetics, Shubin also teaches human anatomy to medical students. One of the main players of the book is Tiktaalik, a 375 million-year-old fossil fish from the Arctic that Shubin and his research team discovered in 2004. This fish, the fish of the book title, had fins but also is the earliest known creature to have a neck and wrists, features usually associated with land vertebrates such as ourselves. Other chapters on the hand, the head, general body plans, the teeth, the sense organs, and various ailments address their evolutionary origins and the evidence of their beginnings within our bodies. This book is a wonder-filled introduction to our evolutionary heritage for lower-level undergraduates and the general public. This reviewer also hopes that Shubin will eventually write a book for more academic and advanced readers (in the manner of Sean Carroll). Highly recommended.
—Walter L. Cressler

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Read an Excerpt


Typical summers of my adult life are spent in snow and sleet, cracking rocks on cliffs well north of the Arctic Circle. Most of the time I freeze, get blisters, and find absolutely nothing. But if I have any luck, I find ancient fish bones. That may not sound like buried treasure to most people, but to me it is more valuable than gold.

Ancient fish bones can be a path to knowledge about who we are and how we got that way. We learn about our own bodies in seemingly bizarre places, ranging from the fossils of worms and fish recovered from rocks from around the world to the DNA in virtually every animal alive on earth today. But that does not explain my confidence about why skeletal remains from the past—and the remains of fish, no less—offer clues about the fundamental structure of our bodies.

How can we visualize events that happened millions and, in many cases, billions of years ago? Unfortunately, there were no eyewitnesses; none of us was around. In fact, nothing that talks or has a mouth or even a head was around for most of this time. Even worse, the animals that existed back then have been dead and buried for so long their bodies are only rarely preserved. If you consider that over 99 percent of all species that ever lived are now extinct, that only a very small fraction are preserved as fossils, and that an even smaller fraction still are ever found, then any attempt to see our past seems doomed from the start.


I first saw one of our inner fish on a snowy July afternoon while studying 375-million-year-old rocks on Ellesmere Island, at a latitude about 80 degrees north. My colleagues and I had traveled up to this desolate part of the world to try to discover one of the key stages in the shift from fish to land-living animals. Sticking out of the rocks was the snout of a fish. And not just any fish: a fish with a flat head. Once we saw the flat head we knew we were onto something. If more of this skeleton were found inside the cliff, it would reveal the early stages in the history of our skull, our neck, even our limbs.

What did a flat head tell me about the shift from sea to land? More relevant to my personal safety and comfort, why was I in the Arctic and not in Hawaii? The answers to these questions lie in the story of how we find fossils and how we use them to decipher our own past.

Fossils are one of the major lines of evidence that we use to understand ourselves. (Genes and embryos are others, which I will discuss later.) Most people do not know that finding fossils is something we can often do with surprising precision and predictability. We work at home to maximize our chances of success in the field. Then we let luck take over.

The paradoxical relationship between planning and chance is best described by Dwight D. Eisenhower’s famous remark about warfare: “In preparing for battle, I have found that planning is essential, but plans are useless.” This captures field paleontology in a nutshell. We make all kinds of plans to get us to promising fossil sites. Once we’re there, the entire field plan may be thrown out the window. Facts on the ground can change our best-laid plans.

Yet we can design expeditions to answer specific scientific questions. Using a few simple ideas, which I’ll talk about below, we can predict where important fossils might be found. Of course, we are not successful 100 percent of the time, but we strike it rich often enough to make things interesting. I have made a career out of doing just that: finding early mammals to answer questions of mammal origins, the earliest frogs to answer questions of frog origins, and some of the earliest limbed animals to understand the origins of land-living animals.

In many ways, field paleontologists have a significantly easier time finding new sites today than we ever did before. We know more about the geology of local areas, thanks to the geological exploration undertaken by local governments and oil and gas companies. The Internet gives us rapid access to maps, survey information, and aerial photos. I can even scan your backyard for promising fossil sites right from my laptop. To top it off, imaging and radiographic devices can see through some kinds of rock and allow us to visualize the bones inside.

Despite these advances, the hunt for the important fossils is much what it was a hundred years ago. Paleontologists still need to look at rock—literally to crawl over it—and the fossils within must often be removed by hand. So many decisions need to be made when prospecting for and removing fossil bone that these processes are difficult to automate. Besides, looking at a monitor screen to find fossils would never be nearly as much fun as actually digging for them.

What makes this tricky is that fossil sites are rare. To maximize our odds of success, we look for the convergence of three things. We look for places that have rocks of the right age, rocks of the right type to preserve fossils, and rocks that are exposed at the surface. There is another factor: serendipity. That I will show by example.

Our example will show us one of the great transitions in the history of life: the invasion of land by fish. For billions of years, all life lived only in water. Then, as of about 365 million years ago, creatures also inhabited land. Life in these two environments is radically different. Breathing in water requires very different organs than breathing in air. The same is true for excretion, feeding, and moving about. A whole new kind of body had to arise. At first glance, the divide between the two environments appears almost unbridgeable. But everything changes when we look at the evidence; what looks impossible actually happened.

In seeking rocks of the right age, we have a remarkable fact on our side. The fossils in the rocks of the world are not arranged at random. Where they sit, and what lies inside them, is most definitely ordered, and we can use this order to design our expeditions. Billions of years of change have left layer upon layer of different kinds of rock in the earth. The working assumption, which is easy to test, is that rocks on the top are younger than rocks on the bottom; this is usually true in areas that have a straightforward, layer-cake arrangement (think the Grand Canyon). But movements of the earth’s crust can cause faults that shift the position of the layers, putting older rocks on top of younger ones. Fortunately, once the positions of these faults are recognized, we can often piece the original sequence of layers back together.

The fossils inside these rock layers also follow a progression, with lower layers containing species entirely different from those in the layers above. If we could quarry a single column of rock that contained the entire history of life, we would find an extraordinary range of fossils. The lowest layers would contain little visible evidence of life. Layers above them would contain impressions of a diverse set of jellyfish-like things. Layers still higher would have creatures with skeletons, appendages, and various organs, such as eyes. Above those would be layers with the first animals to have backbones. And so on. The layers with the first people would be found higher still. Of course, a single column containing the entirety of earth history does not exist. Rather, the rocks in each location on earth represent only a small sliver of time. To get the whole picture, we need to put the pieces together by comparing the rocks themselves and the fossils inside them, much as if working a giant jigsaw puzzle.

That a column of rocks has a progression of fossil species probably comes as no surprise. Less obvious is that we can make detailed predictions about what the species in each layer might actually look like, by comparing them with species of animals that are alive today; this information helps us to predict the kinds of fossils we will find in ancient rock layers. In fact, the fossil sequences in the world’s rocks can be predicted by comparing ourselves with the animals at our local zoo or aquarium.

How can a walk through the zoo help us predict where we should look in the rocks to find important fossils? A zoo offers a great variety of creatures that are all distinct in many ways. But let’s not focus on what makes them distinct; to pull off our prediction, we need to focus on what different creatures share. We can then use the features common to all species to identify groups of creatures with similar traits. All the living things can be organized and arranged like a set of Russian nesting dolls, with smaller groups of animals comprised in bigger groups of animals. When we do this, we discover something very fundamental about nature.

Every species in the zoo and the aquarium has a head and two eyes. Call these species “Everythings.” A subset of the creatures with a head and two eyes has limbs. Call the limbed species “Everythings with limbs.” A subset of these headed and limbed creatures has a huge brain, walks on two feet, and speaks. That subset is us, humans. We could, of course, use this way of categorizing things to make many more subsets, but even this threefold division has predictive power.

The fossils inside the rocks of the world generally follow this order, and we can put it to use in designing new expeditions. To use the example above, the first member of the group “Everythings,” a creature with a head and two eyes, is found in the fossil record well before the first “Everything with limbs.” More precisely, the first fish (a card-carrying member of the “Everythings”) appears before the first amphibian (an “Everything with limbs”). Obviously, we refine this by looking at more kinds of animals and many more characteristics that groups of them share, as well as by assessing the actual age of the rocks themselves.

In our labs, we do exactly this type of analysis with thousands upon thousands of characteristics and species. We look at every bit of anatomy we can, and often at large chunks of DNA. There are so much data that we often need powerful computers to show us the groups within groups. This approach is the foundation of biology, because it enables us to make hypotheses about how creatures are related to one another.

Besides helping us refine the groupings of life, hundreds of years of fossil collection have produced a vast library, or catalogue, of the ages of the earth and the life on it. We can now identify general time periods when major changes occurred. Interested in the origin of mammals? Go to rocks from the period called the Early Mesozoic; geochemistry tells us that these rocks are likely about 210 million years old. Interested in the origin of primates? Go higher in the rock column, to the Cretaceous period, where rocks are about 80 million years old.

The order of fossils in the world’s rocks is powerful evidence of our connections to the rest of life. If, digging in 600-million-year-old rocks, we found the earliest jellyfish lying next to the skeleton of a woodchuck, then we would have to rewrite our texts. That woodchuck would have appeared earlier in the fossil record than the first mammal, reptile, or even fish—before even the first worm. Moreover, our ancient woodchuck would tell us that much of what we think we know about the history of the earth and life on it is wrong. Despite more than 150 years of people looking for fossils—on every continent of earth and in virtually every rock layer that is accessible—this observation has never been made.

Let’s now return to our problem of how to find relatives of the first fish to walk on land. In our grouping scheme, these creatures are somewhere between the “Everythings” and the “Everythings with limbs.” Map this to what we know of the rocks, and there is strong geological evidence that the period from 380 million to 365 million years ago is the critical time. The younger rocks in that range, those about 360 million years old, include diverse kinds of fossilized animals that we would all recognize as amphibians or reptiles. My colleague Jenny Clack at Cambridge University and others have uncovered amphibians from rocks in Greenland that are about 365 million years old. With their necks, their ears, and their four legs, they do not look like fish. But in rocks that are about 385 million years old, we find whole fish that look like, well, fish. They have fins, conical heads, and scales; and they have no necks. Given this, it is probably no great surprise that we should focus on rocks about 375 million years old to find evidence of the transition between fish and land-living animals.

We have settled on a time period to research, and so have identified the layers of the geological column we wish to investigate. Now the challenge is to find rocks that were formed under conditions capable of preserving fossils. Rocks form in different kinds of environments and these initial settings leave distinct signatures on the rock layers. Volcanic rocks are mostly out. No fish that we know of can live in lava. And even if such a fish existed, its fossilized bones would not survive the superheated conditions in which basalts, rhyolites, granites, and other igneous rocks are formed. We can also ignore metamorphic rocks, such as schist and marble, for they have undergone either superheating or extreme pressure since their initial formation. Whatever fossils might have been preserved in them have long since disappeared. Ideal to preserve fossils are sedimentary rocks: limestones, sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Compared with volcanic and metamorphic rocks, these are formed by more gentle processes, including the action of rivers, lakes, and seas. Not only are animals likely to live in such environments, but the sedimentary processes make these rocks more likely places to preserve fossils. For example, in an ocean or lake, particles constantly settle out of the water and are deposited on the bottom. Over time, as these particles accumulate, they are compressed by new, overriding layers. The gradual compression, coupled with chemical processes happening inside the rocks over long periods of time, means that any skeletons contained in the rocks stand a decent chance of fossilizing. Similar processes happen in and along streams. The general rule is that the gentler the flow of the stream or river, the better preserved the fossils.

Meet the Author

NEIL SHUBIN is provost of The Field Museum as well as a professor of anatomy at the University of Chicago, where he also serves as an associate dean. Educated at Columbia, Harvard, and the University of California at Berkeley, he lives in Chicago.

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Your Inner Fish 4.3 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 85 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Dr. Schubin has truly succeeded in tracing a fun and informative account of human evolution by looking at fossil and extant homologues. Drawing (especially) from paleontology, but also from fields such as molecular genetics, Schubin takes the reader on an introductory ride through vertebrate form, function, and genetics. I would highly recommend this title as a must-have to any person interested in the biological, medical, or paleontological sciences, whether professional or avocational.
Tunguz More than 1 year ago
Among many reasons that make evolution of life such a fascinating subject to study, the fact that we can learn more about how we humans have become what we are today must rank close to the top. This is the basic premise behind Neil Shubin's "Your Inner Fish." Shubin's day job is field paleontologist, but the idea for this book came about when he taught some laboratory exercises in human anatomy. It turns out that his training in recognizing and categorizing bones of long-extinct creatures is an excellent preparation for understanding of how the human body works. The book is a fascinating and insightful journey into the 3.5 billion years of evolution. It combines scientific facts and information with personal stories and anecdotes. The scientific information is fresh and relevant, and it is not just a regurgitation of the material that can be found in a myriad other books on evolution. These facts really help you with gaining insight into how exactly all life on Earth is related. The last major chapter is probably the most interesting. It is an examination of the way that many of our chronic diseases and illnesses can be traced to the very restricted design options that evolution had. There really is a price that we pay for getting to where we are in the evolutionary development.
owl484 More than 1 year ago
A very good book. Well written. The author makes a good case of connecting with our past(500 million years ago as a fish) As a human being it is good to know that "Natural Selection" is a feasible cause and affect than a belief in a myth. I'm ready for a more realistic interpretation of how I came to be,even if it means in updating of my personal beliefs.
wisdomloverPA More than 1 year ago
This small-sized book teaches many of the key aspects of evolution by focusing features of you and me, like our hands and eyes and necks, and shows how they developed over the millennia from more ancient critters, not just earlier mammals or vertebrates but all the way back to bacteria. A really fun book to read, and nonetheless solidly accurate and never over-simplifying complex issues.
Miguel Anguiano More than 1 year ago
This book is not about faith please put that behind you and you enjoy it.
CalBear2010 More than 1 year ago
The prominent University of Chicago Paleontologist and Professor of Anatomy Neil Shubin graciously narrates the long Geological journey that has led to the structure and function of our current biological system. Shubin's account of his discovery of the 375 million year fish from Ellesmere Island is a warm tale of modern science in one of its finest lights. The timeline he provides of the 375 million years passed since Tiktaalik is thoroughly engaging and bound to have any curious reader interested in our life history and common ancestry hooked until the end. Shubin's work is certain to enlighten all. Scientist or non-scientist, you will learn something new, and at the very least you are destined to gain a greater appreciate of life!
AnnieBM More than 1 year ago
This is a wonderfully written and engaging book which takes one on a paleontologist's journey to undersrtand the human body. The story line of discovery is quite enganging and the writing is basic and accessible to general readers yet makes accurate connections to recent discoveries and work. I highly recommend this book as essential reading for those who have a human body or know any human bodies. For Human Anatomy and Physiology students: it is a great way to quiz yourself!
Guest More than 1 year ago
A fascinating read that really makes you think. So interesting to see an esteemed scientist like Shubin taking on this subject so successfully, getting into the nitty gritty of what evolution is and what it is not. The only problem was that at times it could be quite dry and sometimes slow to read. On that note, I just finished another book that also really made me think. NATURAL SELECTION by Dave Freedman. It's a Jurassic Park type book - a science-based action-thriller about the evolution of a new species of flying predator. What made it special - besides how incredibly fast those pages turned - was how fun, relatable and easy-to-understand it made evolution, a great 'fictional compliment' to anything by Shubin.
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GeneticEnthusiast More than 1 year ago
Extremely insightful and worth the read, A wonderful book if you are already well versed in the world of Evolutionary biology or if you just have a basic interest. It is intelligent enough to not spoon feed data to you, but also explained well enough so that anyone who picks it up can read it, I have read several books on Evolution (It is the largest category in my personal library) And this has got to be one of my all time favorites
dwellNC More than 1 year ago
The difficulty with understanding evolution is that you need to read more than one or two books to get a grasp on it. This is one of those books. 
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Your Inner Fish discusses human evolution by tracing the origins of human bodies back millions of years and showing how we have similarities to many other species. Shubin provides a completely new perspective on our existence and how our world came to be what it is today. In the summer of 2004, Shubin and his colleagues were exploring ancient stream beds of the Arctic Circle when they made they discovered the amazing fossil, which they named Tiktaalik.  This fossil is approximately three-hundred and seventy-five million years old, living in the late Devonian period.  A number of distinctions set this creature apart from any other that had been discovered.  Shubin explains, “Like a fish, it has scales on its back and fins with fin webbing.  But, like early land-living animals, it has a flat head and a neck.” He describes the similarities we have with other species through in the formation of limbs, teeth, and body structure, and the development of smell, vision, and hearing, among other characteristics. On a smaller scale, he discusses DNA and its role in unifying all living creatures.  Shubin uses an analogy of a cake recipe passed from generation to generation to explain the evolution.  He states, “The recipe that builds our bodies has been passed down, and modified, for eons.” We can trace the mutation of genes back through animals and the fossils of past animals to understand how scent genes have occurred and evolved.  Similar stories can be traced for vision and hearing. Ancient fossils studied by paleontologists hold immeasurable information about human evolution. Shubin write, “The real power of this family tree lies in the predictions it allows us to make.” Shubin discusses how our “inner fish” makes us sick. He explains. “Our deep history was spent, at different times, in ancient oceans, small streams, and savannahs, not office buildings, ski slopes, and tennis courts. This disconnect between our past and our human present means that our bodies fall apart in certain predictable ways.” I thought this was a very interesting statement because we could consider a lot of what we do to be unnatural, and that’s not what our bodies have been designed for. Virtually every disease we have has a historical root.  Shubin discusses the reasons for obesity, heart disease, choking, sleep apnea, hernias, and even hiccups. We produce speech using controlled motion of the tongue, larynx, and back of the throat.  Shubin states that this is a relatively small modification from the basic design of mammals and reptiles.  The larynx corresponds to the gill bars of a shark or fish.  However, sleep apnea is a trade-off for the ability to talk. This book provides insight into the many facets of human evolution and explores the “inner fish” in all of us. Shubin succeeds in explaining the evolution of our bodies in a way than any person can follow and appreciate.  I find it amazing how much we can learn from ancient fossils found in rocks that are millions of years old.  Shubin concludes this book quite appropriately, stating, “I can imagine few things more beautiful or intellectually profound than finding the basis for our humanity, and remedies for many of the ills we suffer, nestled inside some of the most humble creatures that have ever lived on our planet.” 
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Such an awe-inspiring book. If you know the principles of evolution, you will still be wonderstruck at the beauty of the journey as described by Shubin.
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Such an exposition told with great humanity. A page-turner!
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Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Captivating treatise on human evolution. I learned so much about my body, can't wait to read Shubin's latest book. Highly recommend.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
This was interesting and well structured, i learned several things about how parts our bodies evolved from simpller ancestor forms It flowed so well it was a pleasure to read I Highly recommend it Alan Hickox
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Entertaining and imformative for both scientists as well as the interested public
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leopardiNJ More than 1 year ago
The ideal of design is perfection - an object so well put together that the alteration of the slightest detail ruins the overall effect. La Gioconda. More commonly, design can be classified as "organic". A simple concept embellished by contingency. Make do with what you have available. Sometimes contingency can lead to its own beauty - more often it's a mess. In this little book, Neil Shubin provides an overview of a number of perspectives by which one can trace the evolutionary history of the human body from the earliest single-cell (despite the title) organism. The author takes us on a somewhat breathless romp through evolutionary anatomy and physiology in what amounts, often, to a textbook update. He opens Your Inner Fish with an excellent description of the frustrations, triumphs, luck and hard work of paleontological field exploration. In the chapters that follow he combines humor and expertise in detailing the evolutionary paths to human appendages, the parallels between anatomy and genetics, between physiology and biochemistry. Along the way he finds time to discuss the evolutionary implications of such diverse topics as hiccups and hernias. Like S. J. Gould, Shubin comes up short in making the fundamental connection between architecture and phylogeny. Why not, in the assembly of limbs, 5, many, 2, 1 or even 4, 1, 3, 2 instead of 1, 2, many, 5? Is the order inevitable or accidental? Is ET a cute joke or a reasonable alternative? The book could well have been titled "A brief introduction to human comparative anatomy", but that would not have been very sexy. However, "brief" should have been appended to the title, for that would have helped to soften the books major flaw - too much is attempted in too little space, especially when one takes into account a bit too much repetition. The author does redeem himself to some degree with an excellent set of annotated notes that includes a solid selection of additional readings. Shubin deserves kudos for taking on such a daunting task and coming up with a fine book that is well worth the read and an excellent starting point for further exploration. Richard R. Pardi Environmental Science William Paterson University