Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Hebrews James

Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Hebrews James

by Clinton E. Arnold

-How the springs at Hierapolis help us understand why Jesus described the church at Laodicea as 'lukewarm'
-The background and circumstances of certificates of divorce in Judaism
-How Jewish dietary laws provided a powerful metaphor for God's acceptance of the Gentiles
Brimming with lavish, full-color photos and graphics, the Zondervan


-How the springs at Hierapolis help us understand why Jesus described the church at Laodicea as 'lukewarm'
-The background and circumstances of certificates of divorce in Judaism
-How Jewish dietary laws provided a powerful metaphor for God's acceptance of the Gentiles
Brimming with lavish, full-color photos and graphics, the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary walks you verse by verse through all the books of the New Testament. It's like slipping on a set of glasses that lets you read the Bible through the eyes of a first-century reader! Discoveries await you that will snap the world of the New Testament into gripping immediacy. Things that seem mystifying, puzzling, or obscure will take on tremendous meaning when you view them in their ancient context. You'll deepen your understanding of the teachings of Jesus. You'll discover the close, sometimes startling interplay between God's kingdom and the practical affairs of the church. Best of all, you'll gain a deepened awareness of the Bible's relevance for your life.
Written in a clear, engaging style, this beautiful set provides a new and accessible approach that more technical expository and exegetical commentaries don't offer. It features:
-Commentary based on relevant papyri, inscriptions, archaeological discoveries, and studies of Judaism, Roman culture, Hellenism, and other features of the world of the New Testament
-Hundreds of full-color photographs, color illustrations, and line drawings
-Copious maps, charts, and timelines-Sidebar articles and insights
-'Reflections' on the Bible's relevance for 21st-century living
Written by leading evangelical contributors:
Clinton E. Arnold (Ph.D., University of Aberdeen), General Editor
S. M. Baugh (Ph.D., University of California, Irvine)
Peter H. Davids (Ph.D., University of Manchester)
David E. Garland (Ph.D., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary)
David W. J. Gill (D.Phil., University of Oxford)
George H. Guthrie (Ph.D., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary)
Moyer V. Hubbard (D.Phil., University of Oxford)
Andreas J. K stenberger (Ph.D., Trinity Evangelical Divinity School)
Ralph P. Martin (Ph.D., University of London, King's College)
Douglas J. Moo (Ph.D., University of St. Andrews)
Mark L. Strauss (Ph.D., University of Aberdeen)
Frank Thielman (Ph.D., Duke University)
Jeffrey A. D. Weima (Ph.D., University of Toronto)
Michael J. Wilkins (Ph.D., Fuller Theological Seminary)
Mark W. Wilson (D.Litt. et Phil., University of South Africa)
Julie L. Wu (Ph.D., Fuller Theological Seminary)
Robert W. Yarbrough (Ph.D., University of Aberdeen)

Product Details

Publication date:
Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Series
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.30(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

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Read an Excerpt

Hebrews, James


Copyright © 2002 George H. Guthrie
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-310-27826-9

Chapter One

Who Wrote Hebrews?

Unlike most other New Testament works, the book of Hebrews does not reveal the identity of its author. Since the second century, people have loved to speculate concerning that identity. The early church fathers were mixed in their opinion on the matter. Scholars of the eastern part of the Mediterranean world often suggested that the apostle Paul wrote the book. Scholars in the West, focused in Rome, argued against that opinion. Even those who held to Pauline authorship, such as Clement of Alexandria and Origen, recognized that the style of the book differs sharply from Paul's writings.

Today few scholars of any theological tradition hold to Pauline authorship for the following reasons. (1) Many of the book's images, theological motifs, and terms are not found in the Pauline literature. For instance, the image of Christ as high priest is unique to Hebrews, and 169 words used in Hebrews are not used anywhere else in the New Testament. (2) The author introduces his quotations of the Old Testament in a different manner from what Paul normally does. Paul usually uses the phrase, "It is written"; Hebrews, following the style of sermons in the Greek-speaking, Jewish synagogues of the Mediterranean world, introduces scriptural quotations with some form of God speaking (e.g., "he says").(3) Finally, the author of Hebrews depicts himself as having received the gospel from the original witnesses commissioned by the Lord (2:3), and, in light of his often-made assertions to the contrary, it is difficult to imagine Paul making such a statement!

Through the centuries other names have been put forward, such as Luke, Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Jude, Apollos, Philip, Silvanus, and Priscilla. What do we know about the author who wrote this intriguing book?


AUTHOR: Unknown, but someone like Apollos.

DATE: Approximately A.D. 64-66.


To address the problem of apostasy among the recipients.

To bolster the resolve of Christians facing persecution.

To challenge the believers to move on to maturity, in terms of theological understanding and practical obedience.

To address friction between the members of the church and their leaders.


1. God has spoken and we should obey him.

2. God has spoken ultimately in the person and work of his Son.

3. The Son is incarnate and exalted.

4. The high-priestly ministry of the Son is manifested through his death and exaltation.

5. The Son's person and work form a superior basis for perseverance in the face of trial.

6. There are terrible consequences for those who reject the salvation provided by the Son's person and work.


Excerpted from Hebrews, James Copyright © 2002 by George H. Guthrie. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Meet the Author

Clinton E. Arnold (Ph D, University of Aberdeen) is Dean and Professor of New Testament at Talbot School of Theology in La Mirada, California.

George H. Guthrie (Ph D, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary) serves as the Benjamin W. Perry Professor of Bible at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee. As a specialist in New Testament and Greek, he is the author of numerous articles and four books including the volume Hebrews in the NIV Application Commentary series.

Douglas Moo (Ph D, University of St. Andrews) is the Blanchard Professor of New Testament at Wheaton College. His work centers on understanding the text of the New Testament and its application today. He has written extensively in several commentary series, including the NIV Application Commentary, Pillar Commentary, Tyndale New Testament Commentary, and the New International Commentary on the New Testament.

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