C. S. Lewis was famous both as a fiction writer and as a Christian thinker, and his biographers and critics sometimes divide his personality in two: the storyteller and the moral educator, the "dreamer" and the "mentor." Yet a large part of Lewis's appeal, for both his audiences, lay in his ability to fuse imagination with instruction. "Let the pictures tell you their own moral," he once advised writers of children's stories. "But if they don't show you any moral, don't put one in. ... The only moral that is of any value is that which arises inevitably from the whole cast of the author's mind."
Storytelling came naturally to Lewis, who spent the rainy days of his childhood in Ireland writing about an imaginary world he called Boxen. His first published novel, Out of the Silent Planet, tells the story of a journey to Mars; its hero was loosely modeled on his friend and fellow Cambridge scholar J.R.R. Tolkien. Lewis enjoyed some popularity for his Space Trilogy (which continues in Perelandra and That Hideous Strength), but nothing compared to that which greeted his next imaginative journey, to an invented world of fauns, dwarfs, and talking animals -- a world now familiar to millions of readers as Narnia.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first book of the seven-volume Chronicles of Narnia, began as "a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood," according to Lewis. Years after that image first formed in his mind, others bubbled up to join it, producing what Kate Jackson, writing in Salon, called "a fascinating attempt to compress an almost druidic reverence for wild nature, Arthurian romance, Germanic folklore, the courtly poetry of Renaissance England and the fantastic beasts of Greek and Norse mythology into an entirely reimagined version of what's tritely called 'the greatest story ever told.'"
The Chronicles of Narnia was for decades the world's bestselling fantasy series for children. Although it was eventually superseded by Harry Potter, the series still holds a firm place in children's literature and the culture at large. (Narnia even crops up as a motif in Jonathan Franzen's 2001 novel The Corrections). Its last volume appeared in 1955; in that same year, Lewis published a personal account of his religious conversion in Surprised by Joy. The autobiography joined his other nonfiction books, including Mere Christianity, The Screwtape Letters, and The Great Divorce, as an exploration of faith, joy and the meaning of human existence.
Lewis's final work of fiction, Till We Have Faces, came out in 1956. Its chilly critical reception and poor early sales disappointed Lewis, but the book's reputation has slowly grown; Lionel Adey called it the "wisest and best" of Lewis's stories for adults. Lewis continued to write about Christianity, as well as literature and literary criticism, for several more years. After his death in 1963, The New Yorker opined, "If wit and wisdom, style and scholarship are requisites to passage through the pearly gates, Mr. Lewis will be among the angels."
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The imposing wardrobe Lewis and his brother played in as children is now in Wheaton, Illinois, at the Wade Center of Wheaton College, which also houses the world's largest collection of Lewis-related documents, according to The Christian Science Monitor.
The 1994 movie, Shadowlands, based on the play of the same name, cast Anthony Hopkins as Lewis. It tells the story of his friendship with, and then marriage to, an American divorcee named Joy Davidman (played by Debra Winger), who died of cancer four years after their marriage. Lewis's own book about coping with that loss, A Grief Observed, was initially published under the pseudonym N. W. Clerk.
Several poems, stories, and a novel fragment published after Lewis's death have come under scrutiny as possible forgeries. On one side of the controversy is Walter Hooper, a trustee of Lewis's estate and editor of most of his posthumous works; on the other is Kathryn Lindskoog, a Lewis scholar who began publicizing her suspicions in 1988. Scandal or kooky conspiracy theory? The verdict's still out among readers.
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|Spirits in Bondage: A Cycle of Lyrics, 1919|
|Pilgrim's Regress, 1933|
|The Allegory of Love; A Study in Medieval Tradition, 1936|
|Out of the Silent Planet, 1938|
|Rehabilitations and Other Essays, 1939|
|The Problem of Pain, 1940|
|The Screwtape Letters, 1942|
|Hamlet: The Prince or the Poem?, 1942|
|Mere Christianity, 1942|
|The Weight of Glory, 1942|
|The Case for Christianity, 1943|
|The Abolition of Man, 1943|
|That Hideous Strength, 1945|
|The Great Divorce, 1945|
|The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, 1950|
|Prince Caspian, 1951|
|The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, 1952|
|The Silver Chair, 1953|
|Poetry and Prose in the Sixteenth Century, 1954|
|The Horse and His Boy, 1954|
|The Magician's Nephew, 1955|
|Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life, 1955|
|The Last Battle, 1956|
|Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold, 1956|
|Reflections on the Psalms, 1958|
|The Four Loves, 1960|
|Studies in Words, 1960|
|The World's Last Night and Other Essays, 1960|
|Grief Observed, 1961|
|An Experiment in Criticism, 1961|
|Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer, 1964|
|The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature, 1964|
|Screwtape Letters, 1965|
|Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories, 1966|
|Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature, 1966|
|Christian Reflections, 1967|
|Letters to an American Lady, 1967|
|Narrative Poems, 1969|
|God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics, 1970|
|The Dark Tower and Other Stories, 1977|
|Letters to Children, 1985|
|All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis, 1922-1927, 1991|