Caring for Your Baby and Young Child, 6th Edition: Birth to Age 5

by American Academy Of Pediatrics

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780553393828
Publisher: Random House Publishing Group
Publication date: 11/04/2014
Edition description: New
Pages: 960
Sales rank: 215,837
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 2.00(d)

About the Author

Steven P. Shelov, MD, FAAP, is a professor of pediatrics at Stony Brook Medicine and associate dean of undergraduate medical education at the Winthrop University Hospital Regional Campus of Stony Brook. He received his M.D. from the Medical College of Wisconsin and his master’s in administrative medicine from the University of Wisconsin. After completing his residency in pediatrics at Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Dr. Shelov became Pediatric Program Director there, and for more than seventeen years was professor of pediatrics, director of pediatric education, and vice chairman of pediatrics. He then went on to become chairman of pediatrics and creator of the Maimonides Infants and Children’s Hospital of Brooklyn. Author of more than one hundred original publications and fifteen books, he has been the founding editor-in-chief of the American Academy of Pediatrics guide for parents, Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5 since its first edition in 1991. 
 
Dr. Tanya Altmann is a UCLA-trained pediatrician who practices in Southern California. As a spokesperson for the American Academy of Pediatrics, she is frequently called upon by local and national news and talk shows to communicate complicated medical issues into easily understood concepts. She stays on the cutting edge through her position as assistant clinical professor at Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA, as chief medical advisor for the Newborn Channel, and her private practice. Her book Mommy Calls: Dr. Tanya Answers Parents’ Top 101 Questions About Babies and Toddlers, hit several bestsellers’ lists after its release. She is also editor-in-chief of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ parenting book The Wonder Years and associate medical editor of their bestselling Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5.

Read an Excerpt

Caring for Your Baby and Young Child

Birth to Age 5


By Steven P. Shelov, Tanya Remer Altmann

American Academy of Pediatrics

Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-553-39382-8



CHAPTER 1

Preparing for a New Baby


PREGNANCY IS A TIME of anticipation, excitement, preparation, and, for many new parents, uncertainty. You dream of a baby who will be strong, healthy, and bright — and you make plans to provide her with everything she needs to grow and thrive. You probably also have fears and questions, especially if this is your first child, or if there have been problems with this or a previous pregnancy. What if something goes wrong during the course of your pregnancy, or what if labor and delivery are difficult? What if being a parent isn't everything you've always dreamed it would be? These are perfectly normal feelings and fears to have. Fortunately, most of these worries are needless. The nine months of pregnancy will give you time to have your questions answered, calm your fears, and prepare yourself for the realities of parenthood.

Some of your initial concerns may have been raised and addressed if you had difficulty becoming pregnant, particularly if you sought treatment for an infertility problem. But now that you're pregnant, preparations for your new baby can begin. The best way to help your baby develop is to take good care of yourself, since medical attention and good nutrition will directly benefit your baby's health. Getting plenty of rest and exercising moderately will help you feel better and ease the physical stresses of pregnancy. Talk to your physician about prenatal vitamins, and avoid smoking, alcohol, and eating fish containing high levels of mercury.

As pregnancy progresses, you're confronted with a long list of related decisions, from planning for the delivery to decorating the nursery. You probably have made many of these decisions already. Perhaps you've postponed some others because your baby doesn't yet seem "real" to you. However, the more actively you prepare for your baby's arrival, the more real that child will seem, and the faster your pregnancy will appear to pass.

Eventually it may seem as if your entire life revolves around this baby-to-be. This increasing preoccupation is perfectly normal and healthy and actually may help prepare you emotionally for the challenge of parenthood. After all, you'll be making decisions about your child for the next two decades — at least! Now is a perfect time to start.

Here are some guidelines to help you with the most important of these preparations.


Giving Your Baby a Healthy Start

Virtually everything you consume or inhale while pregnant will be passed through to the fetus. This process begins as soon as you conceive. In fact, the embryo is most vulnerable during the first two months, when the major body parts (arms, legs, hands, feet, liver, heart, genitalia, eyes, and brain) are just starting to form. Chemical substances such as those in cigarettes, alcohol, illegal drugs, and certain medications can interfere with the developmental process and with later development, and some can even cause congenital abnormalities.

Take smoking, for instance. If you smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, your baby's birth weight may be significantly decreased. Even inhaling smoke from the cigarettes of others (passive smoking) can affect your baby. Stay away from smoking areas and ask smokers not to light up around you. If you smoked before you got pregnant and still do, this is the time to stop — not just until you give birth, but forever. Children who grow up in a home where a parent smokes have more ear infections and more respiratory problems during infancy and early childhood. They also have been shown to be more likely to smoke when they grow up.

There's just as much concern about alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake during pregnancy increases the risk for a condition called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is responsible for birth defects and below-average intelligence. A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have heart defects, malformed limbs (e.g., clubfoot), a curved spine, a small head, abnormal facial characteristics, small body size, and low birth weight. Fetal alcohol syndrome is also the leading cause of intellectual disability in newborns. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the likelihood of a miscarriage or preterm delivery, as well.

There is evidence that the more alcohol you drink during pregnancy, the greater the risk to the fetus. It is safest not to drink any alcoholic beverages during pregnancy.

You also should avoid all medications and supplements except those your physician has specifically recommended for use during pregnancy. This includes not only prescription drugs that you may have already been taking, but also nonprescription or over-the-counter products such as aspirin, cold medications, and antihistamines. Even vitamins can be dangerous if taken in high doses. (For example, excessive amounts of vitamin A have been known to cause congenital [existing from birth] abnormalities.) Consult with your physician before taking drugs or supplements of any kind during pregnancy, even those labeled "natural."

Fish and shellfish contain high-quality protein and other essential nutrients, are low in saturated fat, and contain fatty acids called omega-3s. They can be an essential part of a balanced diet for pregnant women.

At the same time, you should be aware of the possible health risks from eating fish while you're pregnant. You should avoid raw fish during pregnancy because it may contain parasites such as flukes or worms. Cooking and freezing are the most effective ways to kill the parasite larvae found in fish. For safety reasons, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends cooking fish at 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 degrees Celsius). The fish should appear opaque and flaky when done. Certain types of cooked sushi such as eel and California rolls are safe to eat when pregnant.

The most worrisome contaminant in both freshwater and ocean fish is mercury (or more specifically, a form of mercury called methyl mercury). Mercury in a pregnant woman's diet has been shown to be damaging to the development of the brain and nervous system of the fetus. The FDA advises pregnant women, women who may become pregnant, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid eating shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and title fish due to high levels of mercury in these fish. According to the FDA, pregnant women can safely eat an average of 12 ounces (two average meals) of other types of cooked fish each week. Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Albacore tuna tends to be high in mercury, so canned chunk light tuna is a better choice. If local health agencies have not issued any advisories about the safety of fish caught in your area, you can eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don't consume any other fish during that week.

While no adverse effects from minimal caffeine intake (one cup of caffein- ated coffee per day) have yet been proven, you may want to limit or avoid caffeine when you are pregnant. Remember, caffeine is also found in many soft drinks and foods such as chocolate.

Another cause of congenital abnormalities is illness during pregnancy. You should take precautions against these dangerous diseases:

German measles (rubella) can cause intellectual disability, heart abnormalities, cataracts, and deafness, with the highest risk of these problems occurring in the first twenty weeks of pregnancy. Fortunately, this illness now can be prevented by immunization, although you must not get immunized against rubella during pregnancy. If you're not sure whether you're immune, ask your obstetrician to order a blood test for you. In the unlikely event that the test shows you're not immune, you must do your best to avoid sick children, especially during the first three months of your pregnancy. It is then recommended that you receive this immunization after giving birth to prevent this same concern in the future.

Chickenpox is particularly dangerous if contracted shortly before delivery. If you have not already had chickenpox, avoid anyone with the disease or anyone recently exposed to the disease. You also should receive the preventive vaccine when you are not pregnant.

Herpes is an infection that newborns can get at the time of birth. Most often, it occurs as the infant moves through the birth canal of a mother infected with genital herpes. Babies who get a herpes viral infection may develop fluid-filled blisters on the skin that can break and then crust over. A more serious form of the disease can progress into a severe and potentially fatal inflammation of the brain called encephalitis. When a herpes infection occurs, it is often treated with an antiviral medication called acyclovir. For the last month of pregnancy, your doctor may advise taking a recommended dose of acyclovir or valacyclovir to reduce the risk of an outbreak close to the time of delivery. If you have an outbreak or feel symptoms of one coming on during your delivery time, a Cesarean section (or C-section) may be recommended to decrease the risk of exposure to the baby.

Toxoplasmosis may be a danger for cat owners. This illness is caused by a parasitic infection common in cats, but much more often it is found in uncooked meat and fish. Take care that meat is cooked thoroughly prior to consumption, and avoid tasting meat (even while seasoning) before cooking. Wash all cutting boards and knives thoroughly with hot soapy water after each use. Wash and/or peel all fruits and vegetables before eating them. When it comes to infected animals, outdoor cats are far more likely to contract toxoplasmosis. These cats excrete a form of the toxoplasmosis parasite in their stools, and people who come in contact with the infected stools could become infected themselves. To guard against this disease, have someone who is healthy and not pregnant change your cat's litter box daily; if this is not possible, wear gloves and clean the litter box every day. Wash your hands well with soap and water afterward. Also, wash your hands with soap and water after any exposure to soil, sand, raw meat, or unwashed vegetables. There have been no documented cases of animal-transmitted toxoplasmosis in the US in recent years.


Getting the Best Prenatal Care

Throughout your pregnancy, you should work closely with your obstetrician to make sure that you stay as healthy as possible. Regular doctor's visits up until the birth of your baby can significantly improve your likelihood of having a healthy newborn. During each doctor's visit, you will be weighed, your blood pressure will be checked, and the size of your uterus will be estimated to evaluate the size of your growing fetus.

Here are some areas that deserve attention during your pregnancy.


Nutrition

Follow your obstetrician's advice regarding your use of prenatal vitamins. As mentioned, you should take vitamins only in the doses recommended by your doctor. Perhaps more than any other single vitamin, make sure you have an adequate intake (generally, 400 meg a day) of folic acid, a B vitamin that can reduce the risk of certain birth defects, such as spina bifida. Your obstetrician may recommend a daily prenatal vitamin pill, which includes not only folic acid and other vitamins, but also iron, calcium, and other minerals, and the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). Fatty acids are "good" fats, and DHA in particular accumulates in the brain and eyes of the fetus, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy. These fatty acids are also found in the fat of human breast milk. Make sure your doctor knows about any other supplements you may be taking, including herbal remedies.


Eating for Two

When it comes to your diet, do some planning to ensure that you're consuming balanced meals. Make sure that they contain protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. This is no time for fad or low-calorie dieting. In fact, as a general rule, you need to consume about 300 more calories per day than you did before you became pregnant. You need these extra calories and nutrients so your baby can grow normally.


Exercise

Physical activity is just as important when you're pregnant as at any other time of life. Discuss a fitness program with your doctor, including fitness DVDs or videotapes that you've found of interest. Particularly if you haven't been exercising regularly, your doctor may suggest a moderate walking or swimming regimen, or perhaps prenatal yoga or Pilates classes. Don't overdo it. Take it particularly slowly during the first few workouts — even just five to ten minutes a day is beneficial and a good place to start. Drink plenty of water while working out, and avoid activity with jumping or jarring movements.


Tests During Pregnancy

Whether your pregnancy is progressing normally or concerns are present, your obstetrician may recommend some of the following tests.

* An ultrasound exam is a safe procedure and one of the most common tests given to pregnant women. It monitors your fetus's growth and the well-being of his internal organs by taking sonograms (images made from sound waves) of him. It can ensure that your baby is developing normally and will help determine any problems or fetal abnormality. It also can be used close to the time of delivery if your doctor suspects that your baby is in the breech position. Although most babies are in a head- down position in the uterus at the time of delivery, breech babies are positioned so that their buttocks or feet will move first through the birth canal, before the baby's head. Because of the risk of head entrapment, breech deliveries are not advised in "first world" countries like the US except in very rare circumstances. Even when a new mother is fully dilated, if the baby is found to be breech, the recently revised recommendations are to always perform a C-section. (For further discussion of breech babies and Cesarean births, see Delivery by Cesarean Section in Chapter 2, pages 46-48.)

* A nonstress test electronically monitors the fetus's heart rate and movements. In this test, a belt is positioned around your abdomen. It is called a "nonstress" test because medications are not used to stimulate movement in your unborn baby or trigger contractions of the uterus.

* A contraction stress test is another means of checking the fetus's heart rate, but in this case it is measured and recorded in response to mild contractions of the uterus that are induced during the test. For example, an infusion of the hormone oxytocin may be used to cause these contractions. By monitoring your baby's heart rate during the contractions, your doctor may be able to determine how your baby will react to contractions during the actual delivery; if your baby is not responding favorably during these contractions, the delivery of your baby (perhaps by Cesarean section) might be scheduled prior to your due date.

* A biophysical profile uses both a nonstress test and an ultrasound. It evaluates the movement and breathing of the unborn baby, as well as the volume of amniotic fluid. Scores are given for each component of the profile, and the collective score will help determine whether there is a need for an early delivery.

Other tests may be recommended, depending on your own physical health and personal and family history. For example, particularly for women with a family history of genetic problems or for those who are age thirty-five or older, your obstetrician may advise tests that can detect genetic disorders. The most common genetic tests are amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, which are described in the box Detecting Genetic Abnormalities below.

Many states have standard programs to screen for chromosomal abnormalities (such as Down syndrome) and other birth defects.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Caring for Your Baby and Young Child by Steven P. Shelov, Tanya Remer Altmann. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics. Excerpted by permission of American Academy of Pediatrics, a division of Random House, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Foreword xxi

Introduction: The Gifts of Parenthood xxiii

Your Child's Gifts to You xxiv

The Gifts You Give Your Child xxv

How to Make Giving a Part of Your Daily Family Life xxviii

Part 1

1 Preparing for a New Baby 3

Giving Your Baby a Healthy Start 4

Getting the Best Prenatal Care 9

Nutrition 10

Eating for Two 10

Exercise 10

Tests During Pregnancy 11

Preparing for Delivery 14

Choosing a Pediatrician 17

A Pediatrician's Training 18

Finding a Pediatrician 19

Issues to Discuss with Your Pediatrician 22

When Should the Baby Leave the Hospital? 24

Should the Baby Be Circumcised? 24

The Importance of Breastfeeding 25

Should I Store My Newborn's Cord Blood? 27

Preparing Your Home and Family for the Baby's Arrival 28

Choosing Baby Clothing and Accessories 28

Buying Furniture and Baby Equipment 29

Preparing Your Other Children for the Baby's Arrival 34

Finally-Delivery Day! 38

2 Birth and the First Moments After 43

First Moments After 43

Routine Vaginal Delivery 44

Delivery by Cesarean Section 46

Delivery Room Procedures Following a Normal Vaginal Birth 48

Leaving the Delivery Area 51

If Your Baby Is Premature 52

Reflecting on Your Baby's Arrival 56

3 Basic infant Care 57

Day to Day 58

Responding to Your Baby's Cries 58

Helping Your Baby Sleep 61

Positioning for Sleep 61

Diapers 63

Urination 67

Bowel Movements 67

Bathing 69

Skin and Nail Care 72

Clothing 75

Your Baby's Basic Health Care 78

Taking a Rectal Temperature 78

Visiting the Pediatrician 79

Immunizations 81

4 Feeding Your Baby 83

Breastfeeding 85

Getting Started: Preparing for Lactation 88

Letting Down and Latching On 89

When Your Milk Supply Increases 96

How Often and How Long? 100

What About Bottles? 104

Milk Expression and Storage 105

Possible Nursing Concerns and Questions 109

Bottle-Feeding 115

Why Formula Instead of Cow's Milk? 116

Choosing a Formula 116

Preparing, Sterilizing, and Storing Formula 119

The Feeding Process 122

Amount and Schedule of Formula Feedings 124

Supplementation for Breastfed and Bottle-Fed Infants 125

Vitamin Supplements 125

Iron Supplements 126

Water and Juice 126

Fluoride Supplements 127

Burping, Hiccups, and Spitting Up 128

Burping 128

Hiccups 128

Spitting Up 128

5 Your Baby's First Days 133

Your Newborn's First Days 134

How Your Newborn Looks 134

Your Baby's Birth Weight and Measurements 140

How Your Newborn Behaves 142

Going Home 143

Parenting Issues 144

Mother's Feelings 144

Father's Feelings 148

Sibling's Feelings 149

Health Watch 150

Your Newborn's First Physical Exams 155

6 The First Month 157

Growth and Development 157

Physical Appearance and Growth 157

Reflexes 159

States of Consciousness 165

Crying and Colic 166

The First Smile 169

Movement 169

Vision 171

Hearing 173

Smell and Touch 174

Temperament 174

Basic Care 176

Feeding and Nutrition 176

Carrying Your Baby 180

Pacifiers 180

Going Outside 182

Finding Help at Home 183

Traveling with Your Baby 185

The Family 186

A Special Message to Mothers 186

A Special Message to Fathers 187

A Special Message to Grandparents 189

Health Watch 192

Safety Check 198

Gar Safety Seats 198

Bathing 198

Changing Table 199

Suffocation Prevention 199

Fire and Burn Prevention 199

Supervision 200

Necklaces and Cords 200

Jiggling 200

7 Age One Month Through Three Months 201

Growth and Development 202

Physical Appearance and Growth 202

Movement 203

Vision 206

Hearing and Making Sounds 208

Emotional and Social Development 210

Basic Care 215

Feeding 215

Sleeping 216

Siblings 217

Health Watch 219

Immunization Update 224

Safety Check 225

Falls 225

Burns 225

Choking 225

8 Age Four Months Through Seven Months 227

Growth and Development 229

Physical Appearance and Growth 229

Movement 229

Vision 233

Language Development 235

Cognitive Development 236

Emotional Development 238

Basic Care 241

Introducing Solid Foods 241

Dietary Supplements 244

Sleeping 245

Teething 246

Swings and Playpens 246

Behavior 248

Discipline 248

Siblings 252

Health Watch 253

Immunization Update 255

Safety Check 256

Car Safety Seats 256

Drowning 256

Falls 257

Burns 257

Choking 257

9 Age Eight Months Through Twelve Months 259

Growth and Development 260

Physical Appearance and Growth 260

Movement 261

Hand and Finger Skills 266

Language Development 267

Cognitive Development 270

Brain Development 272

Emotional Development 274

Basic Care 280

Feeding 280

Weaning from Breast to Bottle 284

Weaning to a Cup 285

Sleeping 287

Behavior 288

Discipline 288

Siblings 290

Grandparents 291

Immunization Update 292

Safety Check 293

Car Safety Seats 293

Falls 293

Burns 294

Drowning 294

Poisoning and Choking 294

10 Your One-Year-Old 295

Growth and Development 296

Physical Appearance and Growth 296

Movement 297

Hand and Finger Skills 299

Language Development 300

Cognitive Development 302

Social Development 304

Emotional Development 307

Basic Care 309

Feeding and Nutrition 309

Getting Ready for Toilet Training 321

Sleeping 322

Behavior 323

Discipline 323

Coping with Temper Tantrums 326

Family Relationships 330

Immunization Update 331

Safety Check 332

Sleeping Safety 332

Toy Safety 332

Water Safety 334

Auto Safety 334

Home Safety 335

Outdoor Safety 335

11 Your Two-Year-Old 337

Growth and Development 338

Physical Appearance and Growth 338

Movement 339

Hand and Finger Skills 341

Language Development 342

Cognitive Development 343

Social Development 345

Emotional Development 349

Basic Care 352

Feeding and Nutrition 352

Teething and Dental Hygiene 354

Toilet Training 356

Sleeping 359

Discipline 364

Family Relationships 365

A New Baby 365

Hero Worship 367

Visit to the Pediatrician 370

Immunization Update 370

Safety Check 371

Falls 371

Barns 371

Poisoning 371

Car Safety 372

12 Your Three-Year-Old 373

Growth and Development 374

Physical Appearance and Growth 374

Movement 375

Hand and Finger Skills 377

Language Development 379

Cognitive Development 382

Social Development 384

Emotional Development 387

Basic Care 389

Feeding and Nutrition 389

Beyond Toilet Training 390

Bed-Wetting 392

Sleeping 393

Discipline 394

Preparing for School 395

Traveling with Your Preschooler 398

Visit to the Pediatrician 399

Immunization Update 400

Safety Check 401

Falls 401

Burns 401

Car Safety 401

Drowning 402

13 Your Four- and Five-Year-Old 403

Development 404

Movement 404

Hand and Finger Skills 405

Language Development 406

Cognitive Development 409

Social Development 410

Emotional Development 412

Basic Care 415

Healthy Lifestyle 415

Feeding and Nutrition 418

Sleeping 421

Discipline 424

Preparing for Kindergarten 425

Visit to the Pediatrician 429

Safety Check 429

Traveling with Your Child 430

14 Early Education and Child Care 435

What to Look for in a Care Provider: Guidelines for the Toddler and Preschool Child 436

Choices in Care 438

In-Home Care/Nanny 439

Family Child Care 442

Child Care Centers 445

Making a Final Selection 447

Building a Relationship with Your Child's Care Providers 452

Resolving Conflicts 455

What to Do When Your Child Is Sick 456

Controlling Infectious Diseases 458

Colds and Flu 459

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Parvovirus Infection 459

Diarrheal Diseases 460

Eye and Skin Infections 460

Head Lice 460

Hepatitis A Virus 461

Hepatitis B Virus 461

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS 461

Ringworm 462

Preventing Injuries and Promoting Car Safety 462

Care for Children with Special Needs 464

15 Keeping Your Child Safe 471

Why Children Get Injured 472

Safety Inside Your Home 475

Room to Room 475

Nursery 475

Kitchen 479

Bathroom 480

Garage and Basement 481

All Rooms 482

Baby Equipment 485

High Chairs 485

Infant Seats 486

Playpens 487

Walkers 488

Pacifiers 488

Toy Boxes and Toy Chests 489

Toys 489

Safety Outside the Home 491

Car Safety Seats 491

Choosing a Car Safety Seat 492

Types of Car Safety Seats 494

Installing a Car Safety Seat 495

Using the Car Safety Seat 497

Air Bag Safety 499

Kids Around Cars 501

Baby Carriers-Backpacks, Front Packs, and Slings 502

Strollers 503

Shopping Cart Safety 504

Bicycles and Tricycles 505

Playgrounds 506

Your Backyard 508

Water Safety 509

Safety Around Animals 512

In the Community and Neighborhood 513

Part 2

16 Abdominal/Gastrointestinal Tract 521

Abdominal Pain 521

Abdominal Pain in Infants 522

Abdominal Pain in Older Children 523

Appendicitis 525

Celiac Disease 526

Constipation 528

Diarrhea 530

Food Poisoning and Food Contamination 537

Hepatitis 542

Inguinal Hernia 545

Communicating Hydrocele 546

Malabsorption 547

Reye Syndrome 549

Vomiting 549

17 Allergies 553

Asthma 553

Eczema 560

Food Allergy 562

Milk Allergy 566

Hay Fever/Nasal Allergy 567

Hives 570

Insect Bites and Stings 571

18 Behavior 575

Anger, Aggression, and Biting 575

Coping with Disasters and Terrorism 580

If a Loved One Dies 582

Hyperactivity and the Distractible Child 583

Temper Tantrums 587

Thumb and Finger Sucking 591

Tics 592

19 Chest and lungs 595

Bronchiolitis 595

Cough 598

Croup 600

Flu/Influenza 602

Pneumonia 605

Tuberculosis 607

Whooping Cough (Pertussis) 609

20 Chronic Conditions and Diseases 613

Coping with Chronic (Long-Term) Health Problems 613

Anemia 621

Sickle Cell Disease 623

Cystic Fibrosis 626

Diabetes Mellitus 627

HIV Infection and AIDS 630

21 Developmental Disabilities 635

Autism Spectrum Disorder 636

Cerebral Palsy 642

Associated Problems 644

Congenital Abnormalities 646

When Your Child Has a Congenital Disorder 647

Congenital Conditions 647

Hearing Loss 652

Intellectual Disability 656

22 Ears, Nose, and Throat 659

Colds/Upper Respiratory Infection 659

Middle Ear Infections 662

Sinusitis 668

Epiglottitis 669

Herpes Simplex 670

Nosebleeds 671

Sore Throat (Strep Throat, Tonsillitis) 673

Tonsils and Adenoid 675

Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis) 677

Swollen Glands 680

23 Emergencies 683

Bites 686

Burns 688

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation 691

Choking 691

Cuts and Scrapes 692

Drowning 696

Electric Shock 697

Fingertip Injuries 698

Fractures/Broken Bones 699

Head injury/Concussion 702

Poisoning 703

24 Environmental Health 709

Air Pollution and Secondhand Smoke 709

Asbestos 711

Carbon Monoxide 712

Contaminated Fish 712

Drinking Water 713

Lead Poisoning 716

Pesticides/Herbicides 720

Radon 722

25 Eyes 723

Amblyopia 726

Cataracts 727

Eye Infections 728

Eye Injuries 728

Eyelid Problems 730

Glaucoma 731

Strabismus 732

Tear (or Lacrimal) Production Problems 733

Vision Difficulties Requiring Corrective Lenses 734

26 Family Issues 737

Adoption 737

Child Abuse and Neglect 739

Divorce 743

Grief Reactions 748

Sibling Rivalry 751

Single-Parent Families 754

Stepfamilies 756

Multiples 758

27 Fever 763

28 Genital and Urinary Systems 771

Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) 771

Proteinuria 772

Circumcision 773

Hypospadias 774

Meatal Stenosis 774

Labial Adhesions 775

Undescended Testicles (Cryptorchidism) 776

Urethral Valves 777

Urinary Tract Infections 778

Wetting Problems or Enuresis 780

29 Head, Neck, and Nervous System 785

Meningitis 785

Motion Sickness 788

Mumps 789

Seizures, Convulsions, and Epilepsy 790

Head Tilt (Torticollis) 792

30 Heart 796

Arrhythmias 796

Heart Murmur 797

Hypertension/High Blood Pressure 799

Kawasaki Disease 802

31 Immunizations 805

Important and Safe 806

What Shots Does Your Child Need? 808

32 Media 813

Early Years 813

Ages Two and Three 814

Ages Four and Five 816

Guidelines for Media Use 817

A Message to Parents 818

33 Musculoskeletal Problems 819

Arthritis 819

Bowlegs and Knock-Knees 823

Elbow Injuries 824

Flat Feet/Fallen Arches 825

Limp 826

Pigeon Toes (Intoeing) 828

Sprains 829

34 Skin 831

Birthmarks and Hemangiomas 831

Chickenpox 834

Cradle Cap and Seborrheic Dermatitis 836

Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum) 837

Hair Loss (Alopecia) 838

Head Lice 839

Impetigo 841

Measles 841

MRSA Infections 843

Pinworms 844

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac 845

Ringworm 846

Roseola Infantum 847

Rubella (German Measles) 848

Scabies 849

Scarlet Fever 851

Sunburn 851

Warts 853

West Nile Virus 854

35 Your Child's Sleep 857

Getting Sleep in Sync 859

Sleep Routines and Dealing with Crying 860

Sharing the Bedtime Routine 861

Parent Sleep Deprivation 861

Daytime Nap Evolution 864

Getting the Most Out of Sleep 866

Dealing with Other Sleep Concerns 869

Putting Sleep in Perspective 869

Appendix 871

Index 891

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