100 Turning Points in American History

100 Turning Points in American History

by Alan Axelrod

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100 Turning Points in American History is the first in a series of books about the critical decisions, events, inventions, and discoveries that shaped our nation, our world, and our civilization.

Each volume presents the stories of 100 decisions/events/ breakthroughs in chronological order and includes, as a special feature, a list of the “Top Ten” ranked in order of impact, with a discussion justifying the ranking. Each decision/event/breakthrough includes sidebar features (“boxes”) highlighting relevant key personalities. Each volume is illustrated with (public domain) photos, images and maps.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781493037445
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 04/01/2019
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 392
Sales rank: 3,482
File size: 18 MB
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About the Author

Alan Axelrod is the author of more than 100 books on history, military history, leadership, management, corporate history, career, general business, and other nonfiction. After receiving his Ph.D. in English (specializing in early American literature and culture) from the University of Iowa in 1979, Axelrod taught early American literature and culture at Lake Forest College (Lake Forest, Illinois) and at Furman University (Greenville, South Carolina).

He has been a creative consultant (and on-camera personality) for The Wild West television documentary series (Warner Bros.), Civil War Journal (A&E Network), and The Discovery Channel, and he has appeared on MSNBC, CNN, CNNfn, CNBC, Fox Network affiliates in Philadelphia and Atlanta, and numerous radio news and talk programs, including National Public Radio. He and his work have been featured in BusinessWeek, Fortune, Men’s Health, Cosmopolitan, Inc., Atlanta Business Chronicle, and many newspapers, including Atlanta Journal-Constitution and USA Today. Axelrod has served as consultant for the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum (Rochester, New York), the Airman Memorial Museum (Suitland, Maryland), and the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum (Winterthur, Delaware).

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Columbus Arrives in the "New World" (1492) 3

Jamestown Is Founded (1607) 8

The First African Slaves Are Sold in America (1619) 12

The Mayflower Arrives (1620) 16

Tisquantum-Squanto-Saves the Pilgrims (1621) 19

A Massachusetts Settler Kills an Indian, Touching Off King Philip's War (1675) 23

Salem Tries Its People for Witchcraft (1692) 29

Young George Washington Ignites the French and Indian War (1754) 33

The Boston Massacre Is Followed by a Trial (1770) 37

A Minuteman Fires the Shot Heard 'Round the World (1775) 42

The Continental Congress Adopts the Declaration of Independence (1776) 46

Victory at the Battle of Yorktown Assures Independence (1781) 51

Delaware Becomes the First State to Ratify the Constitution (1787) 57

The Bill of Rights Is Drafted (1789) 61

The Supreme Court Decides Its Supremacy (1803) 64

Thomas Jefferson Purchases Louisiana from Napoleon (1803) 67

The British Burn Washington (1814) 71

Ground Is Broken on the Erie Canal (1817) 75

South Carolina's John C. Calhoun Launches the Nullification Crisis (1828) 77

Congress Passes the Indian Removal Act (1830) 80

Andrew Jackson Wages War on the Second Bank of the United States (1832) 84

Samuel F. B. Morse Demonstrates His Telegraph (1844) 87

James Marshall Finds Gold in California (1848) 90

Female Suffragists Meet in Seneca Falls (1848) 95

The Supreme Court Hands Down Its Verdict in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) 98

William Smith Strikes Oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania (1859) 101

Abolitionist John Brown Leads a Raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry (1859) 105

The Confederacy Goes to War against the United States (1861) 109

The Homestead Act Becomes Law (1862) 113

Abraham Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation (1862) 117

The Union Army Prevails in the Battle of Gettysburg (1863) 121

John Wilkes Booth Assassinates President Lincoln (1865) 126

The Cowboy Becomes an American Icon (1866) 130

The Transcontinental Railroad Is Completed (1869) 134

Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse Triumph in the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876) 138

Thomas Edison Demonstrates His Incandescent Electric Lamp (1879) 143

The "Battle" of Wounded Knee Ends the Indian Wars (1890) 146

William Jennings Bryan Refuses Crucifixion on a "Cross of Gold" (1896) 150

To Hell with Spain (1898) 153

Edwin S. Porter Directs The Great Train Robbery (1903) 158

The Jungle Aims for America's Heart but Hits It in the Stomach (1906) 161

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Kills 146 Immigrant Workers (1911) 164

Ford's Moving Assembly Line Begins Operation in Highland Park, Michigan (1913) 169

The Zimmermann Telegram Is Revealed (1917) 171

A Worldwide Influenza Pandemic Begins in the United States (1918) 175

Prohibition Becomes a Federal Case (1919) 177

Congress Rejects the League of Nations (1919) 181

Americans Ratify the Nineteenth Amendment, Giving Women the Vote (1920) 185

Congress Cracks Down on Immigration (1924) 188

Sacco and Vanzetti Are Executed (1927) 191

The Stock Market Crashes (1929) 193

Franklin D. Roosevelt Announces a "New Deal" (1933) 198

The Great Strike Wave Sweeps the Nation (1934-1937) 201

The Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor (1941) 206

Executive Order 9066 Authorizes the "Internment" of Japanese Americans (1942) 211

The US Navy Prevails in the Battle of Midway (1942) 214

The American Crusade in Europe Begins on the Shores of Normandy (1944) 217

Congress Enacts the "GI Bill" (1944) 222

The Enola Gay Drops an "Atomic Bomb" on Hiroshima (1945) 224

Jackie Robinson Signs a Contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers (1947) 229

The Marshall Plan Goes into Effect, Putting the United States at the Center of Postwar European Recovery (1948) 234

President Truman Authorizes the Berlin Airlift (1948) 238

The North Atlantic Treaty Is Signed, Creating NATO (1949) 242

Senator Joseph McCarthy Claims Communist Infiltration of US Department of State (1950) 245

The Supreme Court's Decision in Brown v. Board of Education Outlaws Racial Segregation (1954) 249

Dr. Jonas Salk Successfully Tests a Polio Vaccine (1955) 252

The Birth Control Pill Is Approved (1960) 255

US Spy Planes Find Nuclear Missiles in Cuba (1962) 258

Betty Friedan Publishes The Feminine Mystique (1963) 262

John F. Kennedy Is Assassinated in Dallas (1963) 265

Lyndon B. Johnson Sets His Goals for a "Great Society" (1964) 269

Congress Passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (1964) 272

Congress Passes the Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964) 275

Ronald Reagan Speaks of "A Time for Choosing" (1964) 278

Bloody Sunday Happens in Selma (1965) 281

North Vietnam Launches the Tet Offensive (1968) 284

Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Is Assassinated (1968) 288

Robert F. Kennedy Is Assassinated (1968) 291

Democratic National Convention Erupts in Riots (1968) 294

The Stonewall Uprising in New York City Begins the Gay Liberation Movement (1969) 297

Neil Armstrong Sets Foot on the Moon (1969) 299

The Woodstock Festival Becomes an Icon of 1960s American Youth Culture (1969) 302

ARPANET, Precursor to the Internet,Is Launched (1969) 306

Sesame Street Debuts on Public Television, Becoming an Instant Media Landmark in Culture and Education (1969) 309

Richard Nixon Creates the Environmental Protection Agency (1970) 312

President Richard M. Nixon Takes the United States off the Gold Standard (1971) 315

Nixon's Plumbers Are Nabbed at the Watergate (1972) 318

Richard M. Nixon Resigns the Presidency (1974) 320

AIDS First Clinically Observed in the United States (1981) 324

Motorola Releases the DynaTAC 8000X, First Commercial Cellular Telephone (1983) 327

The Berlin Wall Falls (1989) 330

Federal Officers Lay Siege to the "Branch Davidian Compound" in Waco, Texas (1993) 333

Terrorists Attack the United States (2001) 337

Human Genome Project Is Completed (2003) 340

Facebook Is Launched (2004) 343

Lehman Brothers Collapses, Triggering a Global Financial Crisis (2008) 347

Barack Obama Is Elected the Nation's First African American President (2008) 350

Donald Trump Defeats Hillary Clinton to Become the Forty-Fifth President of the United States (2016) 354

Russia Is Accused of "Meddling" in the US Presidential Election (2016) 359

Amid a New Nationalism, the United States Withdraws from the Paris Climate Accords (2017) 363

Index 367

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