The Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF), launched by the President of the World Bank in January 1999, is a response to the alarming trends of increased world poverty and dimmed growth prospects, inequality and instability, stagnant aid flows, and public dissatisfaction with the efficacy of development assistance. The CDF focuses on a holistic, broad-based approach to development assistance; domestic ownership; partnerships among government, local communities, the private sector, civil society, and development agencies; and the results achieved from development. Being too early to evaluate this initiative, the 1999 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness instead examines the lessons of development experience through the lens of these CDF principles. As in past years, the Review tracks the Bank ' s operational performance based on the findings of recent OED evaluations. The Review draws on extensive evaluation evidence, literature reviews and research findings, country assistance evaluations, background papers, and workshops to identify the tensions and dilemmas likely to be involved in CDF implementation. It identifies promising approaches to meeting the challenges implicit in CDF implementation. Finally, it draws broad implications for the Bank ' s future development effectiveness.