ISBN-10:
193622139X
ISBN-13:
9781936221394
Pub. Date:
08/22/2014
Publisher:
Freeman, W. H. & Company
21st Century Chemistry

21st Century Chemistry

by Kimberley Waldron
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781936221394
Publisher: Freeman, W. H. & Company
Publication date: 08/22/2014
Edition description: 1st Edition
Pages: 464
Sales rank: 594,865
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

1 The Story of Chemistry
Thee Scientific Method: Think, Measure, Rethink xxiv
1.1 The Scientific Method
• This book will help you understand current
science-related issues.
• Scientists follow a system of peer review and
reproducibility.
• The scientific method tests scientific
hypotheses.
• A theory is a well-substantiated and tested
hypothesis.
• Scientists create models that make experimental
data easier to understand.
Key Words matter, atom, scientific method, hypothesis,
theory, model
naturebox Alien Bacteria and the Scientific
Method
1.2 Coming to Terms with the Very Large
and the Very Small
• Scientific notation allows us to work with really
large and really small numbers.
• There are two rules to remember when using
scientific notation.
Key Word scientific notation
1.3 Metric Units, Conversion Factors, and Dimensional Analysis
Chemists work with very large numbers of atoms
because atoms are very small.
• The metric system is an agreed-upon method of
measurement used around the globe.
• Conversion factors are fractions that express the
same value—in different units—on the top and
bottom.
Key Words metric system, base unit, meter, conversion
factor, dimensional analysis
1.4 The Metric Epicurean
• There are several legitimate ways to express
volume and temperature.
• We use the gram when we measure mass and the
second when we measure time.
Key Words liter, Celsius temperature scale, mass
1.5 Juggling Measured Numbers
• We can evaluate precision and accuracy for
any repeated measurement that has a known
standard.
• Accuracy describes the closeness of a
measurement to a known value.
• Human beings use common sense to interpret
results from calculators and scientific
instruments.
Key Words precision, accuracy, standard, global
warming, climate change
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
How Do We Measure Sea Level?
Chapter 1 Themes and Questions

2 Atoms
All about Atoms and What’s Inside Them
2.1 Atoms: The Basis for Everything
• All matter is composed of atoms.
• Atoms are composed of three types of particles:
protons, neutrons, and electrons.
• Scientists define each element by its atomic
number—the number of protons its atoms
contain.
Key Words radiation, charge, element, atomic symbol,
nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, atomic number
2.2 A Brief Introduction to the Periodic Table
• The periodic table is the central organizing
principle in chemistry.
• Scientists make and study transuranium elements
in specialized laboratories.
Key Words periodic table, period, group
2.3 Why Neutrons Matter
• Atoms of a given element can contain different
numbers of neutrons.
• Samples of matter from different locations have
distinctive distributions of isotopes.
• Isotopic measurements can reveal answers to
questions, such as the origin of marble in ancient
monuments.
Key Words mass number, isotope
2.4 Electrons: The Most Important Particle
for Chemists
• Electrons are elusive.
• Energy levels are a way to imagine the
distribution of electrons around the nucleus.
• The location of an electron with respect to the
nucleus determines its role in the atom.
Key Words electron density, chemical reaction,
energy level
2.5 Light and Its Interaction with Atoms
• Electrons can be excited to higher energy
levels.
• Light is electromagnetic radiation.
• The greater the energy of light, the shorter its
wavelength.
• A line spectrum is a pattern of lines of light that
is characteristic of a given element.
Key Words ground state, excited state, light,
electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic spectrum,
visible light, wavelength, line spectrum
naturebox Light Pollution
THEgreenBEAT Are Cell Phones Safe to Use?
Chapter 2 Themes and Questions

3 Everything
The Ways We Organize and Classify Matter
3.1 How Elements Are Distributed in Nature
• We can divide the periodic table into metals,
nonmetals, and metalloids.
• The appearance of soil is partly a function of the
elements it contains.
• Like soil, the human body is a mixture of metals
and nonmetals.
Key Words metal, nonmetal, metalloid, organic,
inorganic
3.2 A Tour of the Periodic Table
• Scientists organize the elements vertically and
horizontally on the periodic table.
• Each family of elements on the periodic table has
its own family traits.
Key Word period
3.3 Categorizing Matter
• It is not easy to put all matter into neat
categories.
• In everyday life, pure substances are not truly
pure.
• Mixtures contain more than one pure
substance.
Key Words pure substance, mixture, alloy
3.4 Compounds and Chemical Formulas
• We can classify matter according to the number
of different elements it contains.
• The chemical formula for Adderall can be
deduced by looking at its structure.
Key Words compound, law of constant composition,
chemical formula
naturebox The Problem with Gold Mining
3.5 When Substances Change
• The three states of matter are gas, liquid,
and solid.
• Many mixtures can be easily separated by
physical means.
• When a chemical change happens, substances
become other substances.
Key Words phase, solid, liquid, gas, physical change,
chemical change
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
E-Waste
Chapter 3 Themes and Questions

4 Bonds
An Introduction to the Forces within Substances
4.1 The Octet Rule
• The noble gases are especially stable.
• Electrons in an atom are either core electrons
or valence electrons.
• Atoms with eight valence electrons have special
stability and obey the octet rule.
Key Words noble gas, valence electron, core electron,
octet rule, noble gas configuration, duet rule
4.2 An Introduction to Bonding
• Atoms achieve stability by gaining or losing
electrons.
• Lewis dot diagrams are a way to keep track
of electrons.
Key Words Lewis dot diagram, lone pair
4.3 Ionic Bonds
• Atoms gain stability by taking or giving away
electrons.
• The periodic table organizes ions according
to charge.
• Cations and anions combine in a way that
balances their charges.
• Most salts exist as crystals that have a repeating
pattern of cations and anions.
Key Words chemical bond, ion, cation, anion, ionic bond,
ionic compound (salt), crystal, formula unit, control
experiment
naturebox Should We Use Silver Nanoparticles
to Reduce Body Odor?
4.4 Covalent Bonds and Bond Polarity
• Atoms gain stability when they make molecules
by sharing electrons in covalent bonds.
• Covalent bonds can form between atoms of
different elements.
• Scientists depict salts and molecules differently
because they have different types of bonds.
Key Words covalent bond, molecule, diatomic molecule,
nonpolar, polar
4.5 Bonding in Metals
• For substances that are composed only of metals,
metallic bonds hold atoms together.
• Metals are malleable and conduct electricity.
Key Word metallic bond
4.6 Determining the Type of Bond between Two Atoms
• Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to
draw electrons toward itself.
• The proximity of elements on the periodic table is
a clue to the type of bond that will form between
them.
Key Word electronegativity
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Collaborative Consumption
Chapter 4 Themes and Questions

5 Carbon
Elemental Carbon, Organic Molecules,
and Carbon Footprints
5.1 Why Is Carbon Special?
• Carbon has special properties because of its
small size.
• A carbon atom can form four bonds.
• We draw molecules in a way that shows they
are three-dimensional.
• Diamonds are strong thanks to a threedimensional
network of covalent bonds.
Key Words uniqueness principle, methane, molecular
structure, tetrahedron, network solid
5.2 Graphite, Graphene, Buckyballs, and the Multiple Bond
• A carbon atom can form multiple bonds to other
atoms.
• Carbon atoms form four bonds in various
ways.
• Carbon’s allotropes feature examples of single
bonds and multiple bonds.
• When atoms share more than two electrons,
the bonds between them are shorter and
stronger.
• The buckyball is an allotrope of carbon.
Key Words multiple bond, allotrope, bond energy, bond
length, carbon footprint, buckyball, greenhouse gas
naturebox Assessing Carbon Footprints
5.3 Making Sense of Organic Molecules
• The most common elements in organic molecules
each form a predictable number of bonds.
• Chemists use line structures to draw organic
molecules.
Key Words hydrocarbon, heteroatom, line structure,
full structure
5.4 Selected Organic Functional Groups
• There is a remarkable diversity of organic
molecules.
• Sulfides contain a sulfur atom in a hydrocarbon
framework.
• Carboxylic acids are an important class of organic
molecules with many varied uses.
• Amines are found in molecules that affect the
brain.
Key Words functional group, sulfide, carboxylic acid,
amine
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Carbon Capture and
Sequestration
Chapter 5 Themes and Questions

6 Air
A Study of the Gases in Our Atmosphere
6.1 The Nature of Gases
• Of the three phases of matter, gases are the
simplest.
• Gas particles move fast and are far apart from
one another.
• Fast-moving gas particles mix together quickly
and completely.
Key Word diffusion
6.2 Pressure
• The pressure that a gas exerts is related to the
collisions the gas particles make with their
container.
• Pressure is a force applied to a surface.
• Atmospheric pressure changes with altitude.
• A gas particle’s mean free path is the distance
it travels between collisions.
• Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted on
us by air in the environment.
Key Words pressure, mean free path, atmospheric
pressure, barometer, millimeters of mercury (mm Hg),
atmosphere (atm)
naturebox Is Natural Gas the Ultimate Energy Resource?
6.3 Variables That Affect Gases: Moles, Temperature, Volume, and Pressure
• The mole allows us to count very small things,
such as atoms and molecules.
• Four variables dictate the behavior of a gas.
Key Words STP, mole, molar volume, Avogadro’s number,
variable
6.4 The Gas Laws: An Introduction
• Pressure and volume are inversely proportional
to one another.
• If we change the number of moles of gas, the
volume of the gas increases.
• If we change the temperature of a gas,
the volume or pressure changes.
Key Words gas law, Boyle’s law, Avogadro’s law,
Amonton’s law, Charles’s law
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Bees as Gas Detectives
Chapter 6 Themes and Questions

7 Chemical Reactions
How We Keep Track of Chemical Changes
7.1 Sparks! The Thermite Reaction
• Balanced chemical equations represent chemical
reactions.
• The total number of each type of atom must
be the same on both sides of a chemical
equation.
• We add coefficients to reactants and/or products
to balance chemical equations.
• Balancing equations is a trial-and-error
process.
Key Words chemical equation, reactant, product,
coefficient, law of conservation of mass
7.2 Atomic Accounting
• We can view a chemical equation from different
perspectives.
• The mole is a counting device that helps us to
think on a macroscopic scale.
• Molar mass is a way to convert mole units to mass
units.
• We can calculate molar mass for any element or
compound.
Key Words atomic scale, laboratory scale, molar mass
7.3 Stoichiometry
• Stoichiometry allows us to use chemical
equations to perform chemical reactions.
• We can use chemical equations to scale up
or scale down a chemical reaction.
• Balanced chemical equations obey the law
of conservation of mass.
Key Words stoichiometry, combustion
naturebox Two Ozone Holes?
7.4 Chemical Reactions in the Real World
• Real chemical reactions are usually not as
straightforward as their equations imply.
• A reaction energy diagram illustrates the progress
of a chemical reaction.
• Reactants must scale an energy hill to become
products.
• Catalysts make chemical reactions go faster.
Key Words side product, reaction energy diagram,
endothermic, exothermic, activation energy, catalyst,
methane
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Cow Flatulence and Global
Warming
Chapter 7 Themes and Questions

8 Water
Why Water Is Critical for Human Beings
and the Planet
8.1 Water Footprints
• A water footprint tallies the total water use by a
person, a business, a country, or the planet.
• Fresh water is only a small percentage of all the
water on Earth.
• Much of Earth’s freshwater supply is
polluted.
• In the United States, drinking water is protected
by the Safe Drinking Water Act.
Key Words water footprint, potable, fresh water,
water cycle, evaporation, water vapor, condensation,
precipitation, sublimation, Superfund site, Safe Drinking
Water Act, flocculant
8.2 The Nature of Liquid Water
• Intermolecular forces are forces between
molecules.
• Hydrogen bonds are the strongest type
of intermolecular force.
• Water molecules are polar and experience
dipole–dipole interactions.
• Ice is less dense than water.
Key Words intermolecular force, hydrogen bond, dipole,
dipole–dipole interaction, density
naturebox Songbirds and Hydrogen Atoms
8.3 Changing Phases: Water and Ice
• Freezing and melting occur at the same
temperature.
• Freezing of water contributes to hurricane-force
winds.
• While a substance changes phase, its temperature
remains constant.
• Heating curves illustrate how phases change.
• Water has a high specific heat.
Key Words freezing point, melting point, heating curve,
specific heat, passive solar
8.4 Changing Phases: Water and Water Vapor
• The boiling point of water depends on
altitude.
• Summary: During phase changes, intermolecular
forces are made and broken.
Key Word boiling point
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Should We Be Spiking Our Drinking
Water?
Chapter 8 Themes and Questions

9 Salts and Aqueous Solutions
The Nature of Salts and How They Interact
with Water
9.1 Review: The Nature of Salts
• Salts are ionic solids.
• Salts pack tightly into a crystalline lattice.
Key Words cation, anion
9.2 Polyatomic Ions
• Egyptian mummies can help us understand the
behavior of salts.
• Polyatomic ions include multiple atoms and one
or more charges.
• Salts are electrically neutral.
Key Words monatomic ion, simple salt, polyatomic ion
9.3 The Hydration of Ions
• Water molecules are polar and contain a
dipole.
• Cations and anions are hydrated by water
molecules.
• Most salts easily dissolve in water because salts
and water are both polar substances.
• A dynamic equilibrium exists in a saturated salt
solution.
Key Words hydration, ion–dipole interaction, aqueous
solution, dissolve, solvent, solute, dissociation, solubility,
saturated solution, precipitation, equilibrium
9.4 Concentration and Electrolytes
• Gatorade is an electrolyte solution.
• Molarity indicates how much solute is dissolved
in a given volume of solvent.
• There are several ways to express
concentration.
Key Words electrolyte, concentration, molarity, mass
percent
naturebox Fish Out of Water
9.5 Osmosis and Concentration Gradients
• Living cells use semipermeable membranes
to control the flow of substances through the
organism.
• Concentration gradients for various ions are
maintained across cell membranes.
Key Words semipermeable membrane, osmosis
THEgreenBEAT Is It Possible to Drink Too Much Water?
Chapter 9 Themes and Questions

10 pH and Acid Rain
Acid Rain and Our Environment
10.1 The Autoionization of Water
• There are two ways to depict protons in aqueous
solutions.
• Water molecules can break apart and form
ions.
Key Words hydronium ion, autoionization, hydroxide
ion, acid, acidic solution
10.2 Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale
• Acids ionize in water to produce protons.
• The pH expresses proton concentration.
• Acidic solutions have pH values less than
7.00.
• Basic solutions have pH values greater than
7.00.
• We use the pH scale to describe acid or base
strength.
• What can pink polka-dotted airplanes tell us
about the measurement of pH?
Key Words dissociation, strong acid, weak acid, pH,
neutral, acidic, basic, base, indicator, corrosion
10.3 Acid Rain Part I: Sulfur-Based Pollution
• Compounds in air dissolve in water and change
the water’s pH.
• Sulfur compounds are one of two major sources
of acid rain.
• Sulfur dioxide can be scrubbed from coal plant
flue gases.
• Some types of coal produce more sulfur dioxide
than others.
• Even clean coal is a dirty, nonrenewable source
of energy.
Key Words acid rain, Clean Air Act, Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), parts per million (ppm), parts
per billion (ppb), clean coal plant, flue gas desulfurization
naturebox Using Ionic Liquids to Address Modern Environmental Problems
10.4 Acid Rain Part II: Nitrogen-Based Pollution
• Industrial and agricultural uses of nitrogen disrupt
the nitrogen cycle.
• Nitrogen oxides are by-products of burning
gasoline and contribute to acid rain.
• Catalytic converters reduce the emission
of harmful gases from cars.
• NOx emissions have decreased more slowly than
SO2 emissions.
Key Words fixation, eutrophication, dead zone, catalytic
converter
10.5 The Effects of Acid Rain
• Natural waters have a limited tolerance for added
acid or base.
• Acid rain harms forests as well as bodies of
water.
• Acid rain deprives soils of nutrients and releases
toxins that damage trees.
Key Words buffer, neutralization, liming
THEgreenBEAT Caught Pink Handed?
Chapter 10 Themes and Questions

11 Nukes
The Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry
11.1 The Nature of Nuclear Reactions
• We owe our current understanding of
radioactivity and nuclear reactions, in large part,
to the work of four women.
• Nuclear reactions differ from chemical
reactions.
• In a nuclear equation, the neutrons and protons
are usually balanced on each side.
• There are three important types of radioactive
decay.
Key Words radioactive, nuclear fission, nuclear reaction,
radioactive decay, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma
radiation
11.2 Energy from the Nucleus
• Most nuclear reactions produce much more
energy than chemical reactions.
• Chain reactions take place in a nuclear
reactor.
• Uncontrolled chain reactions occur when fission
bombs are detonated.
Key Words control rods, chain reaction, critical mass
11.3 It’s a Wonderful Half-Life
• Radon gas is a natural form of radiation.
• Half-life is the time it takes for one-half of a
radioactive sample to decay.
Key Words radon, radioactive decay series, half-life
naturebox Who’s Going to Take Out the Trash?
11.4 Living Organisms and Radiation
• Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes to
treat and diagnose diseases.
• There are different ways to express radiation dose
and exposure.
Key Words radioactive tracer, sievert (Sv), rem, passive
nuclear safety
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Are Our Nuclear Power Plants
Safe Enough?
Chapter 11 Themes and Questions

12 Energy, Power, and Climate Change
New Ways to Generate Power and Store Energy
12.1 Energy and Power
• Energy can be converted from one form to
another.
• Power expresses energy use over time.
• Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Key Words energy, force, power, watt, first law of
thermodynamics
12.2 Fossil Fuels: What They Are and Where We Get
Them
• Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon mixtures.
• Refineries separate crude oil into usable
fractions.
Key Words fossil fuel, fractionation
12.3 Fossil Fuels and Climate Change
• Fuels combust in the presence of oxygen
molecules.
• A car’s fuel economy is related to its power.
• Climate change is the result of global
warming.
• Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached
400 ppm in 2013.
Key Words gasoline, fuel economy, greenhouse effect,
enhanced greenhouse effect
12.4 Meeting New Environmental Standards
• Paradigm shifts occur when old approaches are
challenged.
• U.S. CAFE laws set minimum levels on fuel
economy for cars and trucks.
Key Words Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) laws
naturebox Ice-Core Measurements
12.5 Storing Energy in Hydrogen Molecules
• Fuel cells use redox reactions to produce
electricity and water.
• Redox reactions combine oxidation and
reduction half-reactions.
• Fuel cells are limited by the availability of
hydrogen gas.
Key Words electrolysis, fuel cell, electrochemical cell,
oxidation, reduction, redox reaction, anode, electric
current, cathode
12.6 Energy from the Sun
• The sun is a virtually limitless source of
energy.
• Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electrical
energy.
• Rechargeable batteries are electrochemical cells
that can be used to store solar energy.
• Solar energy can be used anywhere the sun
shines.
Key Words photosynthesis, deforestation, solar energy,
photovoltaic cell, semiconductor, battery, net metering
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Energy Use by Internet Server
Farms
Chapter 12 Themes and Questions

13 Sustainability and Recycling
Finding Better Ways to Use (and Reuse)
Our Resources
13.1 What Is Sustainability?
• Sustainability is the capacity to endure.
• A life-cycle assessment accounts for the energy
and materials that go into making a product.
• It is possible to estimate the environmental
impact of a product or process.
• Cradle-to-cradle design includes a plan for
product reuse.
Key Words biodegrade, sustainability, life-cycle
assessment (LCA), cradle-to-cradle, bisphenol A (BPA)
naturebox TBD
13.2 What Is Plastic?
• Plastics are made from polymers, which are large
organic molecules.
• Natural rubber is a polymer called
polyisoprene.
Key Words monomer, polymer, plastic
13.3 The Physical Properties of Polymers
• The structure of a polymer often dictates its
physical properties.
• Polymers can be designed for rigidity and
toughness.
• Crystallites can make polymers more rigid.
Key Words hydrophobic, hydrophilic, amide, cross-links,
crystallite
13.4 Recyclable and Sustainable Plastics
• We can categorize plastics as thermoplastic
polymers or thermosetting polymers.
• Plastics are recycled according to their resin ID
codes.
• Recycled plastics can be made into new products
and structures.
• Waste plastics that are not recycled end up in the
landfill or the incinerator.
• The structure of a polymer dictates its
biodegradability.
Key Words thermoplastic polymers, thermosetting
polymers, resin ID code, VOC, recyclable, bioplastic,
lightweighting
THEgreenBEAT News about the Environment:
Landfills, Paper, and the Menace
of Single-Use Water Bottles
Chapter 13 Themes and Questions

14 Food
The Biochemistry of the Foods We Eat
14.1 Protein: The Most Critical Nutrient
• The human body needs a mixture of fuels for
optimal health.
• Both micronutrients and macronutrients are part
of a balanced diet.
• Amino acids are the monomers that make up
proteins, which are polymers.
• Protein chains can fold into globular
proteins.
• Structural proteins play mechanical and structural
roles.
Key Words nutrient, macronutrient, biomolecule,
micronutrient, malnutrition, protein, amino acid, peptide
bond, disulfide bond, globular protein, enzyme
14.2 How Proteins Are Made
• DNA is a polymer of nucleotides.
• Genes within DNA are transcribed into RNA,
which is translated into protein.
Key Words deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), nucleic acid,
nitrogenous base, nucleotide, complementary base pair,
double helix, gene, ribonucleic acid (RNA), transcription,
genetic code, triplet, translation
14.3 Genetic Engineering and GMOs
• Genetic engineering alters the DNA of food
crops.
• Genetic engineering is used to grow herbicideor
insect-resistant food crops.
• The use of certain GMOs is controversial.
Key Words genetic engineering, genetically modified
organism (GMO), transgenic organism
naturebox The Demise of Natural Orange Juice 432
14.4 Carbohydrates
• There is an obesity epidemic among children and
adults in the United States.
• Carbohydrates can be simple or complex, and
grains can be refined or whole.
• Digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates
into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Key Words body mass index (BMI), carbohydrate,
saccharide, sugar, complex carbohydrate, whole grain,
dietary fiber
14.5 Fats
• Human beings store energy in the form of
fat.
• Lipids are hydrophobic molecules that are not
polymeric.
• Many properties of fatty acids depend on
the number of double bonds the fatty acids
contain.
• Fatty acids are stored in the form of
triglycerides.
Key Words lipid, hydrophobic, fatty acid,
triacylglyceride, trans fat, hydrogenation, biodiesel
Chapter 14 Themes and Questions
Appendix A Working with Measured Numbers:
Significant Figures
Appendix B Answers to Odd-Numbered End-of-Chapter
Questions
Glossary
Index

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