50 Studies Every Internist Should Know presents key studies that shape today's practice of internal medicine. Selected using a rigorous methodology, the studies cover topics including: preventative medicine, endocrinology, hematology and oncology, musculoskeletal diseases, nephrology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, cardiology, pulmonology, geriatrics and palliative care, and mental health. For each study, a concise summary is presented with an emphasis on the results and limitations of the study, and its implications for practice. An illustrative clinical case concludes each review, followed by brief information on other relevant studies. This book is a must-read for health care professionals and anyone who wants to learn more about the data behind clinical practice.
About the Author
Kristopher Swiger, MD is a Resident Physician of Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Joshua R. Thomas, MD, MPH is a Cardiology Fellow at Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. Michael E. Hochman, MD, MPH is the Medical Director for Innovation at AltaMed Health Services in Los Angeles, California. Steven Hochman, MPH is a Medical Student at Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California.
Table of ContentsSection 1. Preventive Medicine 1. Preventing Diabetes: The Diabetes Prevention Program 2. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) 3. Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: The Physicians' Health Study and the Women's Health Study 4. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: The Women's Health Initiative 5. The Cochrane Review of Screening Mammography 6. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer 7. Screening for Lung Cancer with Low-Dose Computed Tomography vs. Chest Radiography: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) Section 2. Endocrinology 8. Treating Elevated Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 9. Intensive versus conservative blood sugar control for patients with type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD trial 10. Intensive vs. Conventional Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DCCT) 11. Intensive vs. Conservative Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Section 3. Hematology and Oncology 12. Choice of Anticoagulant for Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer 13. Vena Caval Filters in the Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Proximal Deep-Vein Thrombosis 14. Phase I Study of Imatinib (STI571) in Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Section 4. Musculoskeletal Diseases 15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Low Back Pain 16. Early therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: The TICORA Study Section 5. Nephrology 17. Revascularization vs. Medical Therapy for Renal Artery Stenosis 18. Correcting Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: The CHOIR Study 19. Early versus Late Initiation of Dialysis: The IDEAL Trial Section 6. Gastroenterology 20. Use of IV Albumin in Patients with Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis 21. Early use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding Section 7. Infectious Diseases 22. Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Infections among Patients in the Emergency Department 23. Antibiotic Therapy in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 24. Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy for Patients with HIV: The NA-ACCORD Study Section 8. Cardiology 25. Statins in Healthy Patients with an Elevated C-Reactive Protein: The JUPITER Trial 26. The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) 27. Choosing Fist-Line Therapy for Hypertension: The ALLHAT Trial 28. Rate Control versus Rhythm Control for Atrial Fibrillation: The AFFIRM Trial 29. Initial Treatment of Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The COURAGE Trial 30. Early Invasive vs. Conservative Management for Unstable Angina or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: The RITA 3 Trial 31. MADIT II: Prophylactic Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Low Ejection Fraction Following Myocardial Infarction 32. Captopril in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction: The SAVE Trial 33. Spironolactone in Advanced Heart Failure: The RALES Trial 34. The African American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT) 35. Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction with Cardiogenic Shock (IABP-SHOCK II) Section 9. Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine 36. Intensive versus Conventional Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients 37. Red Cell Transfusion in Critically Ill Patients: The TRICC Trial 38. Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 39. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome/Acute Lung Injury 40. Comparison of routine vs. on-demand chest radiographs in mechanically-ventilated adults in the intensive care unit 41. Early Goal-Directed Therapy in Sepsis 42. Dopamine vs. norepinephrine in the treatment of shock 43. Daily Interruption of Sedative Infusions in Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation 44. A Comparison of Four Methods of Weaning Patients from Mechanical Ventilation Section 10. Geriatrics and Palliative Care 45. Behavioral versus Pharmacological Treatment for Insomnia in the Elderly 46. Treatment of Hypertension in the Elderly 47. Use of feeding tubes in patients with dementia 48. Early Palliative Care in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Section 11. Mental Health 49. Initial Treatment of Depression 50. Symptom-Triggered vs. Fixed Dose Therapy for Alcohol Withdrawal