A Concise History of Political Violence in Algeria, 1954-2000: Brothers in Faith, Enemies in Arms

A Concise History of Political Violence in Algeria, 1954-2000: Brothers in Faith, Enemies in Arms

by Abder-Rahmane Derradji

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780773470477
Publisher: Mellen, Edwin Press, The
Publication date: 09/01/2002
Series: North African Studies
Pages: 344

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsxi
Prefacexiii
Chronology of Eventsxix
Introductionlvii
Chapter 1The FLN's historical legacy and its implications for post-war Algeria1
1.The zonal system and its impact on FLN cohesion5
2.The impact of the zonal system on collective leadership and its role in enhancing regionalism and commanders' power supremacy12
3.The impact of the Soummam Conference of 1956 on the aims and perspectives of the future campaign: an endorsement of, or a deviation from, the Algerian Revolution?15
a.The Messalist challenge and beyond34
b.The Communist challenge37
c.Stages of urban offensive39
4.The Communist connection52
Chapter 2The Islamic factor during and after the war: features, patterns and post-war FLN69
1.The Islamic factor during the Algerian War and beyond69
2.Islam and Jihad in Algerian context76
3.Features of Islamic revivalism and the political scene86
4.Leadership and collapse of the FLN93
5.The socio-economic failure of the FLN programme and the rise of the Islamic trend97
6.Liberals versus hard-liners104
7.Kasdi Merbah versus Chadli Bendjedid106
Chapter 3French counter-guerrilla strategy between deficiency and long-term efficiency113
Part 1The French Colonial Heritage
1.French counter-guerrilla strategy in colonial Algeria: between theory and practice113
2.The main obstacles to French counter-insurgency policy120
a.French military tactics and failure to copy those of the FLN121
b.French reliance on FLN dissident forces and on the concept of the counter-insurgency programme123
c.French misperceptions and the limits of La Guerre Revolutionnaire125
d.The political instability of governments in France and Algeria and the involvement of the French army in politics126
e.Ethnic and political heterogeneity of the French army and its morale in action129
Chapter 4The untold story of French long-term strategy in Algeria and beyond135
Part 2The French Colonial Heritage
1.French long-term strategy and its efficiency135
2.The relevance of domino theory to North Africa140
3.The French policy at work142
4.EMG versus the GPRA152
5.Causes of desertion153
6.The significance of 'Force Locale' and 'Force de L'Ordre' in de Gaulle's long-term strategy156
7.Means of entry into post-war institutions for Algerian collaborators with the French158
8.Parallels between military attitudes of the colonial French and the post-war Algerians161
9.Vocabulary and forms of propaganda161
10.Violence and repression163
11.Institutional censorship and disinformation165
Chapter 5The rise and fall of the National Liberation Front in Algeria: 1962-92171
1.The National Liberation Front in history and its various policies171
2.The FLN under Ben Bella and Boumedienne173
3.The FLN under Chadli's rule181
4.The last FLN attempt and its fall190
Chapter 6The National Liberation Front versus the Islamic Salvation Front197
1.Historical legacy of the Algerian Islamic trend and its revival197
2.The FIS Party structure206
3.The FIS ideology208
4.The economic policy of the FIS: strengths and weaknesses213
5.The last FLN temptation and the FIS challenge216
Chapter 7The Islamic Salvation Front strategy and tactics225
1.The FIS internal crisis from birth to rebellion225
2.The FIS prior to its birth234
3.Nahnah versus Abassi Madani235
4.Ali Belhadj versus Mohammed Said236
5.The impact of the FIS on government instability under multi-party democracy238
6.Mouloud Hamrouche facing the crisis240
7.The new FIS challenge: means and methods243
a.Al Bayan (Pamphlet)244
b.Al Aarida (Petition)244
c.Al Mudhahara (Demonstration)245
d.Al Massirah (March)245
e.Al Inthar Annihaii (Last Warning/Ultimatum)245
8.FIS direct struggle and its methods245
a.Al Ikhlaa (Evacuation and Isolation)246
b.Al Mukataa (Boycott and Non-Co-operation)246
c.Al Julus Fil Makan (Sitting)247
d.Al Idhrab (Strike)247
e.Al Idhraab Alaam (General Strike)247
f.Taawiidu Assulta (Substitution of Authority and its Transfer)248
9.What made the FIS more popular and victorious than other Islamic associations and trends?250
10.The general scene prior to the January coup and the aftermath of the cancellation of the 1991 elections254
11.Profile of the FIS political programme, between maturity and total denial: discussion and comments257
a.Characteristics of the FIS programme258
b.Profile of the FIS political project259
i.The ideological framework262
ii.The political axis263
iii.The economic policy266
12.FIS politico-economic activities and efforts267
a.Agriculture267
b.Industry270
c.Trade273
d.Finance275
e.Social Charter policy277
i.Essence of educational curriculum279
f.Sanitary and health policy285
g.The Cultural Charter286
h.Reform of the Army288
Chapter 8Political violence prior to the January coup of 1992 and beyond297
1.Political violence before the January coup 1992: from MIA to GIA297
2.Political violence and group dynamics309
3.Algerian anti-terrorism law as a means for counter-terror and guerrilla policy346
4.The exchange of high and low terror348
5.The impact of political violence and the state of the economy after the coup358
6.Dialogue between attempts and failures368
7.National and local elections in 1997 and their impact on the political scene371
Chapter 9The Algerian army in politics: eradicators versus conciliators399
1.Profile of the Algerian army in politics399
2.Army influence on the presidency410
3.The remarkable resilience of army power412
4.Counter-insurgency between eradication and imperfection418
Chapter 10The international dimension of the Algerian crisis457
1.The regional dimension of the Algerian crisis457
2.The Arab and the Eastern link?459
3.Algeria and France474
4.External advocates of dialogue: the United States and the European Union485
Conclusion519
Appendices523
Figures 1-16524
Governments and cabinets since the war of independence540
Biography of main politicians since the war of independence573
General Bibliography609
Index657

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