A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects

A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects

by Frederick G. Hofmann

Paperback(2nd ed)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195030570
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 04/01/1983
Edition description: 2nd ed
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.76(d)

About the Author

University of Michigan

University of Michigan

Columbia University (Emeritus)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction1
Some Definitions2
The Problem of Drug Abuse6
Patterns and Development of Drug Use8
Predictors of Initiation of Drug Abuse9
Correlates of Cessation of Drug Use11
Neurological Aspects of Drug Abuse12
2.Tobacco and Nicotine17
Tobacco Culture17
Epidemiology and Patterns of Use19
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics22
Effects of Nicotine23
Subjective Effects23
Physiological Dependence and Tolerance24
Physiological Effects24
Mechanism of Central Action26
Morbidity and Mortality27
Coronary Heart Disease27
Cancer28
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease29
Smoking and Fetal Development29
Passive Smoking29
Treatment of Nicotine Addiction31
3.Opioids35
Culture and History35
Opioid Drugs39
Patterns of Use42
Effects of Opioid Drugs44
Subjective Effects44
Analgesia45
Gastrointestinal System45
Respiration46
In Utero Effects46
Physiological Dependence47
Tolerance48
Mechanism of Action48
Absorption and Fate49
Toxicity50
Pharmacological Treatment of Abuse51
4.Depressants of the Central Nervous System: Alcohol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines55
Alcohol56
Epidemiology and Patterns of Use56
Genetics and Alcoholism58
Central Nervous System Effects of Alcohol59
Absorption, Distribution, and Metabolism64
In Utero Effects of Alcohol66
Beneficial Effects of Alcohol67
Morbidity67
Mortality71
Pharmacological Treatment of Alcholism72
Barbiturate and Nonbarbiturate Sedative-Hypnotics73
Benzodiazepines and other Minor Tranquilizers73
Effects of Benzodiazepines73
Patterns of Use74
Mechanism of Action75
Tolerance and Physiological Dependence76
Other Minor Tranquilizers77
5.Depressants of the Central Nervous System: Volatile Solvents and Aerosols81
Preparation Used83
Patterns of Use84
Effects of Volatile Solvents86
Habitual Use of Volatile Solvents87
Physiological Dependence87
Toxic Effects of Volatile Solvents: Morbidity and Mortality87
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons88
Aromatic Hydrocarbons88
Halogenated Hydrocarbons (Alkyl Halides)89
Ketones90
Esters90
Nitrites90
6.Club Drugs: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine, and Agents Taken in Similar Patterns94
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine95
Chemistry and Mechanism of Action95
Effects and Toxicity96
Patterns of Use97
Metabolism97
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate97
Effects and Phamacokinetics98
Dependence and Withdrawal99
Medical Indications99
Hallucinogens99
Ketamine and Phencyclidine100
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide104
7.Marijuana and Hashish108
Epidemiology and Patterns of Use109
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics110
Physiological Dependence and Tolerance112
Effects of Marijuana113
Subjective Effects113
Physiological Effects115
Mechanism of Central Action116
Adverse Effects117
Acute Adverse Effects117
Persistent Adverse Effects118
Medical Use119
8.Central Nervous System Stimulants: Cocaine, Amphetamines, Related Drugs, and Caffeine123
Cocaine124
Mechanism of Action, Absorption, and Fate126
Toxicity127
The Amphetamines128
Neurotoxicity131
Mechanism of Action, Absorption, and Fate131
Effects of Amphetamine and Cocaine131
Patterns of Use132
Physiological Dependence on Stimulants134
Khat Chewing and Cathinone134
Caffeine and Theophylline135
Patterns of Use136
Effects136
Physiological Dependence137
Drugs Used to Treat Hyperactivity and Obesity139
9.Medical Issues Associated with Drug Abuse142
Infections Resulting from Intravenous Drug Use142
Heart143
Lung144
Central Nervous System144
Liver145
Skin and Soft Tissue146
Bone and Joint148
Immune System148
Pulmonary Health Risks from Smoking Illicit Drugs150
Marijuana150
Cocaine151
10.Drug Abuse and the Law154
Drug Abuse and American Federal Law154
Drug Abuse and International Law165
Index171

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