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A History of the Modern Middle East / Edition 3
     

A History of the Modern Middle East / Edition 3

by William L. Cleveland
 

ISBN-10: 0813340489

ISBN-13: 9780813340487

Pub. Date: 07/21/2004

Publisher: Avalon Publishing


A History of the Modern Middle East examines the profound and often dramatic transformations of the region in the past two centuries, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the challenge of Western imperialism, to the impact of US foreign policies. Built around a framework of political history, while also carefully integrating social, cultural, and

Overview


A History of the Modern Middle East examines the profound and often dramatic transformations of the region in the past two centuries, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the challenge of Western imperialism, to the impact of US foreign policies. Built around a framework of political history, while also carefully integrating social, cultural, and economic developments, this expertly crafted account provides readers with the most comprehensive, balanced and penetrating analysis of the modern Middle East.

The sixth edition has been revised to provide a thorough account of the major developments since 2012, including the tumultuous aftermath of the Arab uprisings, the sectarian conflict in Iraq and civil war in Syria that led to the rise of ISIS, the crises in Libya and Yemen, and the United States' nuclear talks with Iran. With brand-new timelines in each part, updated select bibliographies, and expanded online instructor resources, A History of the Modern Middle East remains the quintessential text for courses on Middle East history.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780813340487
Publisher:
Avalon Publishing
Publication date:
07/21/2004
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
608
Product dimensions:
5.93(w) x 8.98(h) x 1.45(d)

Table of Contents


List of Illustrations
Preface to the Sixth Edition
Acknowledgments
A Note About Place Names and Transliteration

PART ONE: The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Eighteenth Century
1. The Rise and Expansion of Islam
Pre-Islamic Arabia
Muhammad and the Foundations of Islam
The Arab Conquests and the First Empire
The First Civil War and the End of the Rashidun Caliphate
From Arab Exclusivism to Islamic Universalism: The Umayyad and Abbasid Empires
Conclusion

2. The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Fifteenth Century
Patterns of Islamic History
The Creation and Uses of Wealth
Islamic Rituals and Institutions
Two Versions of Leadership: Sunni Caliph and Shi‘a Imam
The Middle East from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries: An Overview
Conclusion

3. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis
The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Ruling Institutions and Attitudes
The Loss of Ottoman Superiority
The Triumph of Shi‘ism: The Safavid Empire of Iran, 1501–1736
Conclusion: The Sunni-Shi‘a Struggle for Iraq

PART TWO: The Beginnings of the Era of Transformation
4. Forging a New Synthesis: The Pattern of Reforms, 1789–1849
Selim III (1789–1806: Between Old and New
A Revived Center of Power: The Egypt of Muhammad Ali, 1805–1848
Nationalism and Great Power Intervention: The Greek Revolt, 1821–1829
Sultan Mahmud II (1808–1839): Centralization and Transformation
Conclusion

5. The Ottoman Empire and Egypt During the Era of the Tanzimat
The Tanzimat: Continued Ottoman Reform Under the Bureaucrats
The Arab Provinces of Greater Syria During the Tanzimat
Egypt During the Era of Civilian Reform
Conclusion: The Dualism of the Nineteenth-Century Reforms

6. Egypt and Iran in the Late Nineteenth Century
England on the Nile: The British Occupation of Egypt, 1882–1914
Iran During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century
Conclusion

7. The Response of Islamic Society
Religious Assertiveness and Authoritarian Reform: The Era of Abdul Hamid II
Islamic Puritanism on the Tribal Frontiers: The Wahhabi, Sanusi, and Mahdiyyah Movements
The Reform of High Islam
Emerging Currents of Arab Cultural Distinctiveness
Conclusion

8. The Era of the Young Turks and the Iranian Constitutionalists
The Revolt of 1908 and the Young Turks in Power
The Period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Conclusion

9. World War I and the End of the Ottoman Order
The Middle East in World War I: An Overview of Military and Diplomatic Initiatives
The Peace Settlement
Conclusion: The End of the Ottoman Order in the Middle East

PART THREE: The Struggle for Independence: The Interwar Era to the End of World War II
10. Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran
The Atatürk Era in Turkey
Iran under Reza Shah
Turkey and Iran During World War II: Sovereignty and Occupation
Conclusion

11. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Egypt, Iraq, and Transjordan from the Interwar Era to 1945
The Struggle for Power in Egypt in the Interwar Period
An Overview of World War II
Egypt During World War II: Pivot of the British Defense System
Iraq Between the Wars
Iraq During World War II
Transjordan: The Desert Mandate
Conclusion

12. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945
The French Mandate in Syria and Lebanon
Lebanon under the Mandate: The Establishment of Confessional Politics
Syria and Lebanon During World War II: The Troubled Path to Independence
New Kingdom in Arabia: The Rise of the Saudi State
The Search for Identity: Regionalism, Arabism, Islam
Conclusion

13. The Palestine Mandate and the Birth of the State of Israel
The Emergence of Political Zionism
The Balfour Declaration
The Mandate for Palestine: British Administration
The Palestinian Arab Community: Leadership and Institutions
The Jewish Community: Leadership and Institutions
Immigration and Lands
Communal Conflict and the British Response
World War II and the Birth of the State of Israel
The First Arab-Israeli War
Conclusion

PART FOUR: The Independent Middle East from the End of World War II to the 1970s
14. Democracy and Authoritarianism: Turkey and Iran
The Role of the United States in the Postwar Years
Turkey: The Transition to a Multiparty System
Turkish Foreign Policy and the Cyprus Question
Iran: The Reestablishment of Royal Autocracy
Conclusion

15. The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Egyptian Base
The Paralysis of the Old Regime, 1945–1952
The Free Officers and the Cou D’État of 1952
Foreign Relations after 1952
The Adoption of Arab Socialism
Conclusion

16. The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics
Syria: The Military in Politics
Iraq: The End of the Monarchy
The Hasimite Kingdom of Jordan: The Survival of Monarchy
Lebanon: The Precarious Sectarian Balance
Israel, The Arab States, and the June War
Conclusion: The Nasser Era in Perspective

17. Israel and the Palestinians from 1948 to the 1970s
The Israeli Political System and Political Culture
The Elections of 1977: Israel in Transition
The Palestinian Factor after 1948
Conclusion

PART FIVE: The Resurgence of Islam: The Middle East from the 1970s to the 1991 Gulf War
18. The Iranian Revolution and the Revival of Islam
The Stages of Revolution in Iran
The Revival of Islam
Conclusion

19. Changing Patterns of War and Peace: Egypt and Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s
Egypt Under Sadat: Domestic and Diplomatic Realignments
The Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1990
Egypt in the 1980s
Conclusion

20. The Arabian Peninsula in the Petroleum Era
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kuwait, Oman, and the Smaller Gulf States
Conclusion

21. The Consolidation of Authoritarian Rule in Syria and Iraq: The Regimes of Hafiz al-Asad and Saddam Husayn
Syria in the Al-Asad Era
Iraq in the Era of Saddam Husayn and the Ba‘th
The Iran-Iraq War, 1980–1988
Conclusion

PART SIX: Challenges to the Existing Order: The Middle East in the 1990s and 2000s
22. The Palestinian Intifada and the 1991 Gulf War
The Intifada from 1987 to 1991
The Gulf Crisis of 1990–1991
The Aftermath of the Gulf War
Conclusion

23. A Peace So Near, a Peace So Far: Palestinian-Israeli Relations Since the 1991 Gulf War
The Road to the Oslo Peace Accords
The Unraveling of the Oslo Peace Process
The Road from Taba
Conclusion

24. Patterns of Continuity and Change in Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon
Turkey and Iran: Nations at a Crossroads
Hizbullah and the Struggle for Lebanon
Conclusion

25. America’s Troubled Moment in the Middle East
The Policy of Dual Containment
Al-Qa‘Ida and the Attacks of September 11, 2001
The Occupation of Iraq
Iran’s Nuclear Program
Conclusion

26. The 2011 Arab Uprisings and Their Aftermath
Understanding the Uprisings’ Dynamics
Egypt
Syria
Yemen and Libya
Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Monarchies
Conclusion: Connecting Threads

List of Major Rulers
Glossary
Select Bibliography
Index

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