A History of Western Society, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment available in Other Format
Long praised by instructors and students alike for its readability and attention to everyday life, the eleventh edition of A History of Western Society includes even more built-in tools to engage today's students and save instructors time. This edition features a brand-new, comprehensive primary source program in-text and online, expanded chapters devoted to the lives of ordinary people that make the past real and relevant, and the best and latest scholarship throughout. Enhanced with a wealth of digital content—including carefully developed online document assignments for each chapter with auto-graded exercises—the eleventh edition provides easily assignable options for instructors and novel ways for students to master the content. Now integrated with LearningCurve, an adaptive online resource that helps students retain the material and come to class prepared.
To see an example of the new Online Document Assignment from Chapter 14, click here.
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About the Author
John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913.
Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.Joe Perry (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Associate Professor of modern German and European history at Georgia State University. He has published numerous articles and is author of Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History (2010). His current research interests focus on issues of consumption, gender, and popular culture in West Germany and Western Europe after World War II.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Origins, to 1200 b.c.e. Understanding Western History Describing the West What Is Civilization?The Earliest Human Societies From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era Planting Crops Implications of Agriculture Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections Primary Source 1.1: Paleolithic Venus Figures Civilization in Mesopotamia Environment and Mesopotamian Development The Invention of Writing and the First Schools Religion in Mesopotamia Sumerian Politics and Society Primary Source 1.2: Gilgamesh’s Quest for ImmortalityEmpires in Mesopotamia The Akkadians and the Babylonians Life Under Hammurabi Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent Primary Source 1.3: Enheduana’s "Exaltation of Inanna" The Egyptians The Nile and the God-King Egyptian Religion Egyptian Society and Work Egyptian Family Life The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites Primary Source 1.4: Morality in the Egyptian Book of the Dead Primary Source 1.5: Egyptian Home Life Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut and NefertitiLiving in the Past: The Iceman Mapping the Past: Empires and Migrations in the Eastern Mediterranean Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, 1200–510 b.c.e. Iron and the Emergence of New States Iron Technology The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush The Rise of Phoenicia Primary Source 2.1: The Report of Wenamun The Hebrews The Hebrew State The Jewish Religion Hebrew Family and Society Primary Source 2.2: The Covenant Between Yahweh and the Hebrews Primary Source 2.3: A Jewish Family Contract Assyria, the Military Monarchy Assyria’s Long Road to Power Assyrian Rule and Culture The Neo-Babylonian Empire Primary Source 2.4: Assyrians Besiege a City The Empire of the Persian Kings Consolidation of the Persian Empire Persian Religion Persian Art and Culture Primary Source 2.5: Zoroaster’s Teachings in the Avesta Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Cyrus the Great Mapping the Past: The Assyrian and Persian Empires, ca. 1000–500 b.c.e. Living in the Past: Assyrian Palace Life and Power Chapter 3: The Development of Greek Society and Culture, ca. 3000–338 b.c.e. Greece in the Bronze Age Geography and Settlement The Minoans The Mycenaeans Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic Primary Source 3.1: Hesiod, Works and DaysThe Development of the Polis in the Archaic Age Organization of the Polis Governing Structures Overseas Expansion The Growth of Sparta The Evolution of AthensWar and Turmoil in the Classical Period The Persian Wars Growth of the Athenian Empire The Peloponnesian War The Struggle for Dominance Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy Primary Source 3.2: Thucydides on the Great Plague at Athens Classical Greek Life and Culture Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles Households and Work Gender and Sexuality Public and Personal Religion The Flowering of Philosophy Primary Source 3.3: The Acropolis of Athens Primary Source 3.4: Sophocles, Antigone Primary Source 3.5: Aristotle on Slavery Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Aspasia Living in the Past: Triremes and Their Crews Mapping the Past: The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e. Chapter 4: Life in the Hellenistic World, 336–30 b.c.e. Alexander’s Conquests and Their Political Legacy Military Campaigns The Political Legacy Primary Source 4.1: Arrian on Alexander the Great Building a Hellenized Society Urban Life Greeks in Hellenistic Cities Greeks and Non-Greeks Primary Source 4.2: Theocritus, Idyll 15, "The Women at the Adonis Festival" The Economy of the Hellenistic World Agriculture and Industry Commerce Religion and Philosophy in the Hellenistic World Religion and Magic Hellenism and the Jews Philosophy and the People Primary Source 4.3: A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction Hellenistic Science and Medicine Science Medicine Primary Source 4.4: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea Primary Source 4.5: Physician with Young Patient Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Alexander the Great Mapping the Past: The Hellenistic World, ca. 263 b.c.e. Living in the Past: Farming in the Hellenistic World The Past Living Now: Container Shipping Individuals in Society: Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 1000–27 b.c.e. Rome’s Rise to Power The Geography of Italy The Etruscans The Founding of Rome The Roman Conquest of Italy Primary Source 5.1: The Temple of Hercules Victor The Roman Republic The Roman State Social Conflict in RomeRoman Expansion The Punic Wars Rome Turns East Primary Source 5.2: Polybius on the Roman Division of Spoils in the Punic Wars Roman Society Roman Families Greek Influence on Roman Culture Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus Primary Source 5.3: A Woman’s Actions in the Turia Inscription The Late Republic Reforms for Poor and Landless Citizens Political Violence Civil War Primary Source 5.4: Plutarch on the Reforms of Gaius Gracchus Primary Source 5.5: Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra Mapping the Past: Roman Expansion During the Republic, ca. 282–44 b.c.e. Living in the Past: Roman Table Manners Chapter 6: The Roman Empire, 27 b.c.e.–284 c.e. Augustus’s Reign The Principate Roman Expansion The Flowering of Latin Literature Marriage and Morality Primary Source 6.1: Augustus, Res Gestae Primary Source 6.2: Ovid, The Art of Love Primary Source 6.3: Ara Pacis Augustus’s Successors The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians The Age of the "Five Good Emperors" Primary Source 6.4: Pliny the Younger, Letter About the Destruction of Pompeii Rome and the Provinces Life in Imperial Rome Approaches to Urban Problems Popular Entertainment Prosperity in the Roman Provinces Trade and Commerce Primary Source 6.5: Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory The Coming of Christianity Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus The Spread of Christianity The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of ChristianityThe Empire in Disarray Civil Wars and Military Commanders Turmoil in Economic LifeReview and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Bithus, a Soldier in the Roman Army Living in the Past: Roman Epitaphs: Death Remembers Life Mapping the Past: Production and Trade in the Pax Romana, ca. 27 b.c.e.–180 c.e. Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250–600 Reconstruction Under Diocletian and Constantine Political Measures Economic Issues The Acceptance of Christianity Primary Source 7.1: Recruiting and Training Soldiers in the Roman Army The Growth of the Christian Church The Church and Its Leaders The Development of Christian Monasticism Monastery Life Christianity and Classical Culture Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and SinBarbarian Society Village and Family Life Tribes and Hierarchies Customary and Written Law Celtic and Germanic Religion Primary Source 7.2: Tacitus on Germanic Society Migration, Assimilation, and Conflict Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain Visigoths and Huns Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire Primary Source 7.3: Battle Between Romans and Goths Christian Missionaries and Conversion Missionaries’ Actions The Process of Conversion Primary Source 7.4: Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics The Byzantine Empire Sources of Byzantine Strength The Law Code of Justinian Byzantine Intellectual Life The Orthodox Church Primary Source 7.5: Slavery in Justinian’s Law Code Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Theodora of Constantinople Mapping the Past: The Barbarian Migrations, ca. 340–500 Living in the Past: The Horses of Spain Chapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600–1000 The Spread of Islam The Arabs The Prophet Muhammad The Teachings and Expansion of Islam Sunni and Shi’a Divisions Life in Muslim Spain Muslim-Christian Relations Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine Primary Source 8.1: The Muslim Conquest of Spain Frankish Rulers and Their Territories The Merovingians The Rise of the Carolingians The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne Carolingian Government and Society The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne Primary Source 8.2: The Capitulary de Villis Primary Source 8.3: Charlemagne and His Wife Early Medieval Culture The Carolingian Renaissance Northumbrian Learning and Writing Primary Source 8.4: The Death of Beowulf Invasions and Migrations Vikings in Western Europe Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe Magyars and Muslims Primary Source 8.5: Eirik’s Saga Political and Economic Decentralization Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism" Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave TradeReview and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: The Venerable Bede Living in the Past: Muslim Technology: Advances in Papermaking Mapping the Past: Invasions and Migrations of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300 Political Revival and the Origins of the Modern State England France Central Europe Italy The Iberian Peninsula Primary Source 9.1: Marriage and Wardship in the Norman Exchequer Law and Justice Local Laws and Royal Courts The Magna Carta Law in Everyday LifeNobles Origins and Status of the Nobility Training, Marriage, and Inheritance Power and ResponsibilityThe Papacy The Gregorian Reforms Emperor Versus Pope Criticism and Heresy The Popes and Church Law Primary Source 9.2: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam Monks, Nuns, and Friars Monastic Revival Life in Convents and Monasteries The Friars Primary Source 9.3: Brother Henry as Composer and Singer The Crusades and the Expansion of Christianity Background and Motives of the Crusades The Course of the Crusades Consequences of the Crusades The Expansion of Christianity Christendom Primary Source 9.4: An Arab View of the Crusades Primary Source 9.5: The Capture of Jerusalem in 1099 Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen Living in the Past: Life in an English Castle Mapping the Past: The Crusades Chapter 10: Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300 Village Life Slavery, Serfdom, and Upward Mobility The Manor Work Home Life Childbirth and Child AbandonmentPopular Religion Christian Life in Medieval Villages Saints and Sacraments Muslims and Jews Rituals of Marriage and Birth Death and the Afterlife Primary Source 10.1: The Pilgrim’s Guide to Santiago de Compostela Towns and Economic Revival The Rise of Towns Merchant and Craft Guilds The Revival of Long-Distance Trade Business Procedures The Commercial Revolution Primary Source 10.2: Contract for a Trading Venture Urban Life City Life Servants and the Poor Popular EntertainmentMedieval Universities Origins Legal and Medical Training Theology and Philosophy University Students Primary Source 10.3: Healthy Living Primary Source 10.4: Thomas Aquinas on Reason and Faith Literature and Architecture Vernacular Literature and Drama Churches and Cathedrals Primary Source 10.5: Courtly Love Poetry Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Life in Medieval Towns Living in the Past: Child’s Play Mapping the Past: European Population Density, ca. 1300 Individuals in Society: Francesco Datini The Past Living Now: University Life Chapter 11: The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1450 Prelude to Disaster Climate Change and Famine Social ConsequencesThe Black Death Pathology Spread of the Disease Care of the Sick Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects Primary Source 11.1: Dance of Death The Hundred Years’ War Causes English Successes Joan of Arc and France’s Victory Aftermath Primary Source 11.2: The Trial of Joan of Arc Challenges to the Church The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism Critiques, Divisions, and Councils Lay Piety and Mysticism Primary Source 11.3: Raimon de Cornet on the Avignon Papacy Social Unrest in a Changing Society Peasant Revolts Urban Conflicts Sex in the City Fur-Collar Crime Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions Literacy and Vernacular Literature Primary Source 11.4: The Statute of Laborers Primary Source 11.5: Christine de Pizan, Advice to the Wives of Artisans Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Meister Eckhart Mapping the Past: The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Europe Living in the Past: Treating the Plague Chapter 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550 Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy Trade and Prosperity Communes and Republics of Northern Italy City-States and the Balance of Power Primary Source 12.1: A Sermon of Savonarola Intellectual Change Humanism Education Political Thought Christian Humanism The Printed Word Primary Source 12.2: Cassandra Fedele on Humanist Learning Primary Source 12.3: Pico della Mirandola, "On the Dignity of Man" Primary Source 12.4: Thomas More, Utopia Art and the Artist Patronage and Power Changing Artistic Styles The Renaissance ArtistSocial Hierarchies Race and Slavery Wealth and the Nobility Gender RolesPolitics and the State in Western Europe France England Spain Primary Source 12.5: Tax Collectors Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci Mapping the Past: The Growth of Printing in Europe, 1448–1552 Living in the Past: Male Clothing and Masculinity Chapter 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600 The Early Reformation The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century Martin Luther Protestant Thought The Appeal of Protestant Ideas The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women Primary Source 13.1: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty Primary Source 13.2: Domestic Scene The Reformation and German Politics The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty Religious Wars in Switzerland and GermanyThe Spread of Protestant Ideas Scandinavia Henry VIII and the Reformation in England Upholding Protestantism in England Calvinism The Reformation in Eastern Europe Primary Source 13.3: Elizabethan Injunctions About Religion Primary Source 13.4: 1547 Ordinances in Calvin’s Geneva The Catholic Reformation Papal Reform and the Council of Trent New and Reformed Religious Orders Primary Source 13.5: Saint Teresa of Ávila, The Life Religious Violence French Religious Wars The Netherlands Under Charles V The Great European Witch-HuntReview and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Anna Jansz of Rotterdam Living in the Past: Uses of Art in the Reformation Mapping the Past: Religious Divisions in Europe, ca. 1555 Chapter 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650 World Contacts Before Columbus The Trade World of the Indian Ocean The Trading States of Africa The Ottoman and Persian Empires Genoese and Venetian MiddlemenThe European Voyages of Discovery Causes of European Expansion Technology and the Rise of Exploration The Portuguese Overseas Empire The Problem of Christopher Columbus Later Explorers Spanish Conquest in the New World Early French and English Settlement in the New World Primary Source 14.1: A Portuguese Traveler Describes Swahili City-States of East Africa Primary Source 14.2: Columbus Describes His First Voyage Primary Source 14.3: Doña Marina Translating for Hernando Cortés During His Meeting with Montezuma Primary Source 14.4: Interpreting the Spread of Disease Among Natives The Impact of Conquest Colonial Administration Impact of European Settlement on Indigenous Peoples Life in the Colonies The Columbian Exchange Primary Source 14.5: Tenochtitlán Leaders Respond to Spanish Missionaries Europe and the World After Columbus Sugar and Slavery Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects The Birth of the Global EconomyChanging Attitudes and Beliefs New Ideas About Race Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity William Shakespeare and His InfluenceReview and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Juan de Pareja Mapping the Past: Overseas Exploration and Conquest in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Living in the Past: Foods of the Columbian Exchange Chapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725 Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding The Social Order and Peasant Life Famine and Economic Crisis The Thirty Years’ War Achievements in State-Building Warfare and the Growth of Army Size Popular Political ActionAbsolutism in France and Spain The Foundations of Absolutism Louis XIV and Absolutism Life at Versailles French Financial Management Under Colbert Louis XIV’s Wars The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century Primary Source 15.1: Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701 Primary Source 15.2: Letter from Versailles Absolutism in Austria and Prussia The Return of Serfdom in the East The Austrian Habsburgs Prussia in the Seventeenth Century The Consolidation of Prussian AbsolutismThe Development of Russia and the Ottoman Empire The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow The Tsar and His People The Reforms of Peter the Great The Growth of the Ottoman Empire Primary Source 15.3: A German Account of Russian Life Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic Absolutist Claims in England Religious Divides and the English Civil War Cromwell and Puritanical Absolutism in England The Restoration of the English Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century Primary Source 15.4: Diary of an English Villager Primary Source 15.5: John Locke, Two Treatises of Government Baroque Art and Music Review and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Hürrem Living in the Past: The Absolutist Palace Mapping the Past: Europe After the Peace of Utrecht, 1715 Chapter 16: Toward a New Worldview, 1540–1789 Major Breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution Scientific Thought in 1500 Origins of the Scientific Revolution The Copernican Hypothesis Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right Newton’s Synthesis Primary Source 16.1: Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger Important Changes in Scientific Thinking Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Empire and Natural History Science and Society Primary Source 16.2: "An Account of a Particular Species of Cocoon" The Enlightenment The Emergence of the Enlightenment The Influence of the Philosophes Jean-Jacques Rousseau The International Enlightenment Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere Race and the Enlightenment Primary Source 16.3: Du Châtelet, Foundations of Physics Primary Source 16.4: Enlightenment Culture Primary Source 16.5: Denis Diderot, "Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage" Enlightened Absolutism Frederick the Great of Prussia Catherine the Great of Russia The Austrian Habsburgs Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened AbsolutismReview and Explore — LearningCurveONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment Living in the Past: Coffeehouse Culture Mapping the Past: The Partition of Poland, 1772–1795