This book is dedicated to the memory of Israel Gohberg (1928–2009) – one of the great mathematicians of our time – who inspired innumerable fellow mathematicians and directed many students. The volume reflects the wide spectrum of Gohberg’s mathematical interests. It consists of more than 25 invited and peer-reviewed original research papers written by his former students, co-authors and friends. Included are contributions to single and multivariable operator theory, commutative and non-commutative Banach algebra theory, the theory of matrix polynomials and analytic vector-valued functions, several variable complex function theory, and the theory of structured matrices and operators. Also treated are canonical differential systems, interpolation, completion and extension problems, numerical linear algebra and mathematical systems theory.