A Primer on Organizational Behavior

A Primer on Organizational Behavior

by James L. Bowditch, Anthony F. Buono

Paperback(2nd ed)

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A Primer on Organizational Behavior by James L. Bowditch, Anthony F. Buono

In today's world, information technology is reshaping organizations and the management practices within them. This new edition provides a complete guide to this changing world, both the practice and the scholarship that surrounds it. In a concise and sophisticated treatment, the 7th Edition gives students all the terms and concepts they need to understand Organizational Behavior in modern organizations.

This new edition is thoroughly up-to-date with a new focus on how information technology and diversity are continuing to reshape business organizations and the management practices within them. It includes in-depth discussions on vital topics such as: early management thought, workplace incivility, social justice, conformity in groups, virtual teams, team conflict, leader-member relations, organizational change, emotional intelligence, knowledge management and related concerns about knowledge hoarding (vs. knowledge sharing), social identity theory, executive coaching. Throughout the text, readers are asked to apply OB concepts to managerial and organizational situations. A strong focus on research includes appendices on research methods, how to interpret common statistics, and how to read a research-oriented journal article.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471617853
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/16/1990
Series: Wiley Series in Management Series , #204
Edition description: 2nd ed
Pages: 393

About the Author

James L. Bowditch is the Stewardship & Planned Giving Officer for the Diocese of Maine. For the past two years, he was the Director of Development at Episcopal Divinity School. Prior to that he was Professor of Management in the Management & Information Systems Department at Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, PA, and earlier, Dean of the College of Business & Administration. He was also undergraduate dean and associate professor in the Carroll School of Management at Boston College. His research has been on the human effects of organizational transformation, with a focus on mergers and acquisitions. He has co-authored five books. He holds a B.A. from Yale in psychology, an M.A. from Yale in psychology, an M.A. from Western Michigan University in psychology and a Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational psychology.

Table of Contents

Management and Organizational Behavior     1
Learning About Organizational Behavior     2
Ethics and Organizational Behavior     3
A Historical Framework for the Study of Management and OB     5
Early Management     7
Classical Management     8
Neoclassical Management and Organization Theory     12
Modern Management and Organization Theory     15
Societal Change and Organizational Behavior     20
OB and Advanced Information and Manufacturing Technologies     20
The Quality Movement     25
Discontent, Cynicism, and Fear in the Workplace     26
Sociodemographic Diversity in the Workplace     29
Fads and Foibles in Management     31
Conclusion     32
Notes     33
Perception, Attitudes, and Individual Differences     41
Basic Internal Perceptual Organizing Patterns     42
Gestalt Psychology     42
External Factors in Perception     44
Social and Interpersonal Perception     45
Schemas and Scripts     45
Perceptual Distortion     46
Attribution Theory     49
Perception and Individual Differences     51
Personality     52
Self-Concept     54
Perception, Individual Differences, and Decision Making     55
Attitudes and Attitude Formation     57
Attitude Formation     58
Attitude Change     58
Emotional Intelligence     61
Conclusion: The Social Context of Judgment and Choice     62
Notes     63
Motivation     70
Managerial Assumptions about Human Nature     70
Static-Content Theories of Motivation     72
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs     72
Alderfer's ERG Theory     74
McClelland's Theory of Socially Acquired Needs     74
Needs and Goal Orientation     75
Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory     76
Managerial Application: Work Design and Job Enrichment     78
Process Theories of Motivation     81
Expectancy Theory     82
Path-Goal Theory of Motivation     84
Goal-Setting Theory     84
Managerial Application: Management by Objectives     86
Environmentally Based Theories of Motivation     86
Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement Theory     87
Managerial Application: Organizational Behavior Modification      88
Punishment and Discipline     89
Social Comparison Theory     90
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards and Motivation     93
Managerial Application: Gainsharing     94
Motivation and the Psychological Contract     95
Organizational Commitment and the Psychological Contract     96
Choosing an Appropriate Motivational Model     98
Contrasting Motivation and Learning     99
Conclusion     99
Notes     100
Communication     112
The Communication Process     112
Interpersonal Communication     114
Communication Modes     115
Barriers to Effective Communication     120
Improving Interpersonal Communication     122
Organizational Communication     125
Knowledge Management     125
Communication Networks     128
Organizational Symbols and Rituals     132
In-House Publications     132
Communication Roles     133
Media Richness and Communication Effectiveness     135
Envisioning and Communicating Organizational Change     138
Ethics in Organizational Communication     139
Conclusion      140
Notes     140
Group Dynamics     148
Types of Groups     148
Primary and Secondary Groups     149
Formal and Informal Groups     149
Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Groups     150
Interacting and Nominal Groups     150
Permanent and Temporary Groups     152
Basic Attributes of Groups     152
Individual and Group Status     153
Roles     153
Norms     155
Cohesiveness     156
Group (Organizational) Commitment     158
Groupthink     158
Choice-Shift (Risky-Shift) Phenomenon     160
Social Loafing     161
Group Process and Development     162
Group Development     162
Group and Organizational Socialization     165
Observation of Group Process     167
Conclusion     171
Notes     172
Work Teams and Intergroup Relations: Managing Collaboration and Conflict     179
Work Teams     179
Managing Teams     180
Teams and Social Identity Theory     181
Trust Building and Teamwork     182
Teams in Action      183
Virtual Teams     188
Team Conflict     193
Intergroup Relations     193
Group Interdependence     194
Intergroup Conflict     196
Conclusion: Implications for Managers     200
Notes     202
Leadership, Power, and the Manager     208
Leadership and Power     209
Power and Authority     209
Types of Power     210
The Need for Power in Managerial Performance     211
Theories of Leadership     212
Trait Theory     212
Behavioral and Functional Theories     214
Contingency Theories     221
Attribution Theory     228
Leader-Member Relations     229
Leadership and Management     230
Mintzberg's Managerial Role Set     231
The Role of the General Manager     232
Implications for Management and Leadership     233
Substitutes for Leadership as Supervision     234
Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change     237
Gender, Power, and Leadership     240
Leadership: A Synthesis     241
Notes     243
Macro-Organizational Behavior: The Organization's Environment     251
Organizational Environment     251
Defining Organizational Environment     252
Environmental Change and Uncertainty     256
Organization-Environment Relations     261
Controlling the Environment     261
The International Environment     266
Globalization and Organizational Behavior     267
Transferability of Management Practices     269
Societal Culture and Management     271
Conclusion     274
Notes     275
Organization Structure and Design     282
Organizational Structure     283
Complexity     284
Formalization     286
Centralization     286
Key Organization Structure Challenges     286
Determinants of Structure     291
Organization Design     297
Simple Structure     298
The Functional Organization     299
The Divisionalized Form     301
Adhocracy     301
Market-Based, Network Organizational Forms     307
Conclusion     312
Notes     314
Organizational Culture and Effectiveness      320
Organizational Culture     320
Uniqueness of Organizational Cultures     322
Objective and Subjective Organizational Culture     323
Organizational Subcultures     324
Summary     325
Diagnosing Organizational Culture     325
Culture Change in Organizations     328
Culture as Sustained Competitive Advantage     334
Ethical Considerations and Organizational Culture     334
Organizational Climate     335
Organizational Effectiveness     336
One-Dimensional Views of Effectiveness     336
Competing Values and Organizational Effectiveness     339
Conclusion     342
Notes     342
Organization Development and Change     348
Organization Development     348
Laboratory Training     349
Survey Research and Feedback     349
Sociotechnical Systems     352
The Nature of Organization Development     353
Intervention Strategies and Change     361
Managing Organization Change     368
Changemakers     369
Approaches to Organizational Change     369
Enabling Large-Scale Organization Change      371
Interventions and Organizational Politics     372
Resistance, Support, and Coping with Change     373
Organizational Downsizing, Retrenchment, and Resizing     376
Conclusion     379
Notes     379
The Research Process in Organizational Behavior     389
Statistical Analysis     416
How to Read a Research-Oriented Journal Article     430
Index     453

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