A Short History of Chemistry: Third Edition

A Short History of Chemistry: Third Edition

by J. R. Partington

Paperback(Third Edition)

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Overview

"One of the best short surveys of the history of chemistry I know of. I have always found it useful." — Marshall Clagett, University of Wisconsin.
This classic survey of the history of chemistry — one of the most complete short histories available — is ideal for general readers and undergraduates. Praised for its balanced coverage of both physical and organic chemistry, Professor Partington’s well-known text explores a variety of topics. The first four chapters examine the origins of chemistry, alchemy, applied chemistry, and early medical chemistry. Subsequent sections consider early studies of combustion and the nature of the atmosphere, the discovery of gases (including Priestley’s experiments on air and his discovery of oxygen), Lavoisier and the foundation of modern chemistry, laws of combining proportions and atomic theory; Davy, Berzelius, and electrochemical theory; the beginnings and development of organic chemistry, the theory of valency, history of physical chemistry, periodic law, and the structure of the atom.
Sections on Indian and Chinese science have been rewritten in light of recent investigations. The author has also incorporated additional material relating to Mayow and Lavoisier and has added an entirely new section on advances in chemistry.
Most of the information in this volume has been drawn from original sources. A selection of references and a short bibliography of about 100 items are given to assist readers seeking further information.
Lucid and authoritative, A Short History of Chemistry contains several useful summaries and more than 100 illustrations, including portraits and reproductions from scarce works. The text is valuable both for reading and as a work of reference.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780486659770
Publisher: Dover Publications
Publication date: 12/28/2011
Series: Dover Books on Chemistry Series
Edition description: Third Edition
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.91(d)

Table of Contents

I. THE ORIGINS OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY
Early Applied Chemistry
Early Knowledge of Metals
Glass
Dyes
II. THE BEGINNINGS OF CHEMISTRY
The Four Elements
Chemical Knowledge of the Classical Period
The Chemical Papyri
Alexandria
The Beginning of Chemistry
Alexandrian Chemistry
III. THE DIFFUSION OF ALCHEMY
Chemistry in Arabia
Hindu Chemistry
Chemistry in China
Alchemy in Europe
Early Eruopean Writers on Alchemy
Roger Bacon
Arnald of Villanova
Raymund Lully
IV. "IATROCHEMISTRY, OR CHEMISTRY IN THE SERVICE OF MEDICINE"
Iatrochemistry
Paracelsus
Van Helmont
Van Helmont on Gas
Van Helmont on the Elements
Van Helmont on the Stone
Van Helmont on Ferments
Sylvius
Agricola
Basil Valentine
Libavius
Glauber
Lemery
Tachenius
Kunckel
Summary of the Early History of Chemistry
V. EARLY STUDIES ON COMBUSTION AND THE NATURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE
Combustion and the Calcination of Metals
Boyle
Boyle on the Elements
Boyle's Law
Boyle's Experiments on Combustion
Boyle's Experiments on Calcination
Boyle's Miscellaneous Experiements
Hooke
Mayow
Jean Rey
The Theory of Phlogiston
VI. Discovery of Gases
The Discovery of Gases
Hales
Black
Black's Researches on the Alkalis
Cavendish
Cavendish's Experiments on Gases
Scheele
Scheele's Experiments on Air
The Discovery of Oxygen by Scheele
Other Discoveries by Scheele
Priestley
Priestley's Experiments on Air
Priestley's Discovery of Oxygen
VII. LAVOISIER AND THE FOUNDATION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY
Lavoisier
Lavoisier's Quantitative Method
Lavoisier's Experiments on Combustion and Calcination
Lavoisier's Antiphlogistic Theory
Theory of Caloric
Chemical Elements
Lavoisier's Experiments on Respiration
The New Chemical Nomenclature
The Composition of Water
Cavendish's Synthesis of Water
Composition of Nitric Acid
The Water Controversy
Summary and Supplement
VIII. LAWS OF COMBINING PROPORTIONS AND THE ATOMIC THEORY
Proust
Berthollet
Controversy of Berthollet and Proust
The Law of Multiple Proportions
Equivalents
Wenzel
Richter
Fischer's Table of Equivalents
Origins of the Atomic Theory
Revival of the Atomic Theory
Higgins
Dalton
Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory
"Chemical Names, Symbols and Formulae"
Summary and Supplement
IX. DAVY AND BERZELIUS AND THE ELECTROCHEMICAL OR DUALISTIC THEORY
Davy
Davy's Discovery of the Alkali Metals
Davy's Researches on Chlorine
Davy's Researches on Iodine
Davy's Researches on Flame
Davy's Electrochemical Theory
Berzelius and Hisinger
Faraday
Berzelius
Berzelius' s Electrochemical Theory
Berzelius's Corpuscular Theory
Ismorphism
Isomerism
Berzelius's Theory of Volumes
Berzelius's Atomic Weight Tables
Avogadro's Hypothesis
Prout's Hypothesis
Use of Equivalents
Summary and Supplement
X. THE BEGINNINGS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Early Knowledge of Organic Chemistry
The Older Radical Theory
Organic Analysis
Chevreul
Gay-Lussac and Thenard
Dumas
The Etherin Theory
Liebig
Wöhler
The Benzoyl Radical
The Ethyl Radical
The Methyl Radical
Bunsen
The Cacodyl Radical
Summary and Supplement
The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry
XI. SUBSTITUTION. THE UNITARY AND TYPE THEORIES
The Theory of Substitution
Criticism of the Electrochemical Theory
Berzelius on Substitution
Graham
Polybasic Acids
Laurent
Dumas's Theory of Types
Gerhardt's Theory of Residues
Gerhardt's Two Volume Formulae and Atomic Weights
Cannizzaro
Gerhardt's Unitary Theory
Hofmann
The Ammonia Type
Williamson's Water Type
Gerhardt's Theory of Types
Summary and Supplement
XII. THE THEORY OF VALENCY
Frankland and Kolbe
The Alcohol Radicals
Kolbe on the Structure of Carbon Compounds
Wurtz
Berthelot
The Theory of Valency
Kekulé
The Formula of Benzene
Summary and Supplement
A Sketch of the Earlier Development of Organic Chemistry
XIII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Pasteur
Van't Hoff
Stereochemistry
Baeyer
Emil Fischer
Victor Meyer
Summary and Supplement
XIV. THE HISTORY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Affinity and Mass Action
Thermochemistry
The Phase Rule
Solutions
Electrolytic Dissociation
Summary and Supplement
XV. THE PERIODIC LAW
Atomic Weights
The Periodic Law
Summary and Supplement
XVI. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
Radioactivity
Isotopes
Structure of the Atom
Theory of the Periodic Table
The Electronic Theory of Valency
Coordination Compounds
The Theory of Directed Valencies
The Transmutation of Elements
A SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX OF NAMES
INDEX OF SUBJECTS

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