A Spirit of Dialogue: Incarnations of Ogbanje the Born-to-Die, in African American Literature

A Spirit of Dialogue: Incarnations of Ogbanje the Born-to-Die, in African American Literature

by Christopher Okonkwo


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A Spirit of Dialogue: Incarnations of Ogbanje the Born-to-Die, in African American Literature by Christopher Okonkwo

A groundbreaking study, A Spirit of Dialogue examines through extensive, interdisciplinary research, theory, and close reading the intricate reconstructions, extensions, and resonances of the West African myth of spirit children, the “Born-to-Die,” in contemporary African American neo-slave narratives. Arguing that the myth, called “Ogbañje” in Igbo language and “àbíkú” in Yoruba, has had over thirty years of uncharted presence in African American literature, Okonkwo advances a compelling case absent in extant scholarship. He traces Ogbañje/the Born-to-Die's appearance in African American texts to a convergence of factors. They include but are not limited to: the impact of Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart; the 1960s emergence of the contemporary neo-slave narrative; the 1960s and 1970s black consciousness/Black Power movement and the cultural agenda, gendered politics, and centripetal philosophy of the Black Arts movement's nationalist aesthetic; African American identity questions of the post-civil rights and the multicultural eras; and the thematic shifts, as well as the African diaspora orientation of African American fiction of the post-nationalist aesthetic period.

A Spirit of Dialogue focuses on the sometimes neglected and understudied works of four canonical African American writers: Octavia E. Butler's Wild Seed and Mind of My Mind, Tananarive Due's The Between, John Edgar Wideman's The Cattle Killing, and Toni Morrison's Sula and Beloved. Okonkwo demonstrates persuasively how the mythic spirit child informs the content and form of these novels, offering Butler, Due, Wideman, and Morrison a non-occidental “code” by which to engage collectively with the various issues integral to the history experience of African-descended people. The paradigm functions, then, as the nexus of a life-affirmative dialogue among the six novels, as well as between them and other works of African religious and literary imagination, particularly Things Fall Apart and Ben Okri's The Famished Road.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781572336155
Publisher: University of Tennessee Press
Publication date: 05/01/2008
Edition description: 1
Pages: 266
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Christopher N. Okonkwo is an associate professor of English at the University of Missouri-Columbia. He has published in several journals, including Callaloo, Research in African Literatures, CLA Journal, African American Review, African Literature Today, and MELUS.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     ix
Note on Orthography     xi
Introduction: An Aesthetic (Re)Mark on the Spirit Child     xiii
O'gbanje and Abiku: Contexts, Conceptualizations, and Two West African Literary Archetypes     1
Chinua Achebe, the Neo-Slave Narrative, the Nationalist Aesthetic, and African American (Re)Visions of the Spirit Child     25
Of Power, Protest, and Revolution: Wild Seed and Mind of My Mind     59
Binary Nativity, Subjectivity, and the Wages of (In)Fidelity to "Origins": The Between     89
Mediating Character, Theme, and Narration: "O'gbanje" as Hermeneutics in The Cattle Killing     111
Sula, Beloved, and the Constructive Synchrony of Good and Evil     139
Epilogue: This Blues Called O'gbanje     169
Notes     179
Bibliography     211
Index     239

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