This is a new and freshly published edition of this culturally important work by Fredrick Accum, which is now, at last, again available to you.
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It has been urged by some, that, under so vast a system of finance as that of Great Britain, it is expedient that the revenue should be collected in large amounts; and therefore that the severity of the law should be relaxed in favour of all mercantile concerns in proportion to their extent: encouragement must be given to large capitalists; and where an extensive brewery or distillery [Pg 23]yields an important contribution to the revenue, no strict scrutiny need be adopted in regard to the quality of the article from which such contribution is raised, provided the excise do not suffer by the fraud.
...Hard waters may, in general, be cured in part, by dropping into them a solution of sub-carbonate of potash; or, if the hardness be owing only to the presence of super-carbonate of lime, mere boiling will greatly remedy the defect; part of the carbonic acid flies off, and a neutral carbonate of lime falls down to the bottom; it may then be used for washing, scarcely curdling soap.
...It is generally soft, and more free from earthy salts than spring water; but it usually contains less common air and carbonic acid gas; for, by the agitation of a long current, and exposed to the temperature of the atmosphere, part of its carbonic acid gas is disengaged, and the lime held in solution by it is in part precipitated, the loss of which contributes to the softness of the water.
...Some rivers, however, that do not take their rise from a rocky soil, and are indeed at first considerably charged with foreign matter, during a long course, even over a richly cultivated plain, become remarkably pure as to saline contents; but often fouled with mud containing much animal and vegetable matter, which are rather suspended [Pg 46]than held in true solution.
...It might, at first sight, be expected that the water of the Thames, after having received all the contents of the sewers, drains, and water courses, of a large town, should acquire thereby such impregnation with foreign matters, as to become very impure; but it appears, from the most accurate experiments that have been made, that those kinds of impurities have no perceptible influence on the salubrious quality of a mass of water so immense, and constantly kept in motion by the action of the tides.