ISBN-10:
0130918490
ISBN-13:
9780130918499
Pub. Date:
06/18/2001
Publisher:
Pearson
Abnormal Psychology : The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior / Edition 10

Abnormal Psychology : The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior / Edition 10

by Irwin G. Sarason, Barbara R. Sarason

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130918499
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 06/18/2001
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 681
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.10(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
What Is Abnormal Behavior. Historical Background of Modern Abnormal Psychology. Recent Concepts of Abnormal Behavior. The Epidemiology of Maladaptive Behavior. Classifying Abnormal Behavior. Seeking Help for Abnormal Behavior. Research in Abnormal Behavior.

2. The Elements of Maladaptive Behavior: Theory, Treatment, and Research.
The Role of Theory in Abnormal Psychology. The Biological Perspective. The Psychodynamic Perspective. The Behavioral Perspective. The Cognitive Perspective. The Humanistic-Existential Perspective. The Community-Cultural Perspective. An Interactional Approach.

3. Classification and Assessment.
Classification: Categories of Maladaptive Behavior. Assessment: The Basis of Classification.

4. Stress, Coping, and Maladaptive Behavior.
Stress and Coping. Stressful Situations an Life Transitions. Clinical Reactions to Stress. Treating Stress-Related Problems.

5. Bodily Dysfunction: Eating and Sleeping Problems and Psychophysiological Disorders.
Psychological, Social, and Bodily Interactions. Eating Disorders. Psychological Disorders. Diagnostic Dilemmas.

6. Disorders of Bodily Preoccupation.
Somatoform Disorders.

7. Anxiety Disorders.
The Experience of Anxiety. Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Panic Disorder. Phobias. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Interpreting and Treating Anxiety Disorders.

8. Sexual Variations and Disorders.
Changing Views of Sexual Behavior. Gender Identity Disorder. The Paraphilias. Sexual Victimization.

9. Personality Disorders.
Classifying Personality Disorders. Anxious of Fearful Behavior. Treatment of Personality Disorders.

10. Mood Disorders and Suicide.
Mood Disorders. Depression. Depressive Disorders. Causes and Treatment of Depression. The Bipolar Disorders. Causes and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder. Suicide. Prevention of Suicide.

11. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders.
Psychotic Disorders. Schizophrenia. DSM-IV Subtypes of Schizophrenia. What Causes Schizophrenia. Studying Vulnerability to Schizophrenia. Vulnerability and the Environment. Therapeutic Approaches. Long-Term Outcome Studies. Other Psychotic Disorders.

12. Cognitive Impairment Disorders.
The Brain: An Interactional Perspective. Dementia. Amnestic Disorders. The Diversity of Cognitive Impairment Disorders. An Integrative Approach to Brain Disorders. An Integrative Approach to Brain Disorders. Chapter Summary.

13. Substance-Related Disorders.
Substance-Use Disorders. Substance-Induced Disorders. Theories and Treatment. Other Drugs. Is There a Final Common Pathway? Substance Dependence and Public Policy. Are There Behavioral Addictions?: The Dilemma of Pathological Gambling.

14. Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence.
Externalizing Disorders. Internalizing Disorders. Therapy for Children and Adolescents.

15. Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Mental Retardation.

16. The Therapeutic Enterprise: Choices, Techniques, Evaluation.
Psychotherapy. Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches. Integration and Extension of Psychological Therapies. Research on the Psychological Therapies. Integration of Psychologically Based Therapeutic Approaches. Biological Therapies. Hospitalization.

17. Society's Response to Maladaptive Behavior.
Types of Prevention. Sites of Prevention. The Diverse Paths to Prevention. Treatment in the Community. Legal Aspects of Treatment and Prevention.

Preface

As in previous editions, one of our major goals is to introduce students of abnormal psychology to (1) the nature of psychopathology, (2) how clinicians diagnose and treat it, and (3) the research that contributes to understanding maladaptive behavior, its prevention and treatment. Another goal is to explain the growing complexity of psychopathology in a clear and engaging way. Complexity does not have to be confusing. With a few organizing principles, it can lead to an appreciation of richness. This is exactly what occurs in a fine Persian carpet that may have several complex designs integrated by means of a few organizing esthetic principles. In this edition, we have made a special effort to introduce the student to complexity so that it becomes rich and nuanced rather than just potentially confusing information.

Changes and New Pedagogical Features

Each time we produce an edition, we are always amazed at how much new and exciting knowledge has been uncovered since the previous edition. The tenth edition is no exception. Following are some of the most outstanding improvements.

Vulnerability-resilience theme: The importance of personsituation interactions is a theme running through every chapter of the book. We emphasize this theme because of the growing evidence that personal vulnerabilities reduce the ability to cope effectively with stress-arousing, problematic situations and, as a consequence, increase the likelihood of maladaptation.

Integration of biological and experiential factors: We now know that, in addition to interactions that involve persons and the situations they confront, other types of interactions involving mind, body,and experiences are also important. Individual's experiential histories can exert impacts, not only on how they behave but also on their bodily processes (for example, how their brains work). These bodily processes, in turn, can influence how people respond to future situational challenges. For instance, in Chapter 16 we present recent evidence suggesting that the brain processes traumatic memories different from the way ordinary memories are recorded and stored.

Two related issues that are receiving attention today are (1) the variables (for example, age and experiential history) that play roles in brain plasticity and (2) how changes in brain structure and function influence vulnerability and resilience with regard to life's challenges. For example, Chapter 7 examines the increasingly evident role of the hippocampus in anxiety disorders, and Chapter 12 discusses new evidence concerning brain-experience interactions and their implications for understanding cognitive impairment disorders.

Another frontier biological issue relates to gene interactions. Not too many years ago, clinicians and researchers harbored the hope that specification of the human genome would reveal the single genes associated with particular disorders such as schizophrenia. However, the more we know about the human genome, the less likely it seems that this hope will be realized. Rather, complex gene combinations and interactions are the likely route to understanding genetic influences over maladaptive behavior. Chapter 2's expanded discussion of biological processes helps us illustrate this complexity. Likewise, Chapter 11's new material on the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia clarifies the roles of genetic and prenatal environmental factors in this disorder.

Expanded discussion of sociocultural factors: The broadened interactional perspective in this edition extends to new evidence in the sociocultural domain. Ethnic, racial, cultural variables interact with a host of other variables in shaping personality, including individuals' attributions, expectations, and coping styles which, in turn, influence how they respond to life circumstances. Many chapters now discuss the relationship among these variables. For instance, Chapter 9 includes a new discussion of cultural variables and personality disorders; Chapter 4 shows how racism can be a pervasive stressor for many members of minority groups; and by presenting new data on racial and ethnic differences in suicide rate, Chapter 10 emphasizes the importance of taking these factors into account in all aspects of clinical work.

Another sociocultural factor, public policy, plays a key role in a given community's level of functioning. Chapter 17, taking-account of recent court decisions and research, presents additional material on the legal and public policy aspects of mental illness. Public policy, in so far as it affects the availability (or unavailability) of mental health services, certainly concerns those who work in mental health.

Therapeutic advances: There have been a number of therapeutic advances, one of the most important being the growing evidence that drug therapies and psychological processes interact. In Chapter 16 we discuss how clinician-patient relationships influence the ways individuals respond to both medications and psychological therapies. We also give examples of the role cultural factors play in patient's receptivity to medications. The many new applications of cognitive-behavioral therapies are reviewed in several chapters.

New chapters on Bodily Dysfunction and Bodily Preoccupation: This edition includes two new health-related chapters. Chapter 5 deals with the growing body of evidence showing that psychosocial variables are implicated in a number of major diseases (for example, coronary heart disease and cancer). This chapter also includes greatly expanded coverage of eating and sleeping disorders, both of which can have negative effects on bodily functioning and even lead to death. Chapter 6 is devoted primarily to excessive bodily preoccupation as a type of maladaptive behavior. This chapter also deals with pain disorders and disorders involving an unrealistic, devalued sense of bodily identity.

Q&A boxes: In order to deal directly with questions students4requently ask, we have included a Q&A box in each chapter. Each box presents a question that students have asked enough times for us to be very aware of it. We answer each question in a direct, conversational manner. We have informally tested our Q&A boxes on our students and they have liked them. The Q&A's seem to be effective at stimulating students' thinking and eliciting their comments and further questions.

Chapter-by-chapter keyword lists: Another new pedagogical feature is a list of Keywords at the end of each chapter. This list will help motivate students as they study and serve as a guide in identifying the main concepts.

More first-person accounts: We have increased the number of first-person accounts of mental illness because students tell us that they make generalizations about clinical work come alive. These also help students feel empathy towards those with maladaptive behavior.

New material in each chapter:

The changes mentioned above are but a small fraction of the updated, expanded, and new discussions of important topics throughout the book. Additional ones include:

  • Chapter 1. Epidemiological evidence concerning risk factors and the effects of stigmatization.
  • Chapter 2. Biological processes related to maladaptive behavior.
  • Chapter 3. Ethnic and cultural factors in maladaptive behavior; DSM-IV-TR (published in 2000).
  • Chapter 4. Racism as a stressor; the grieving process; antecedents of dissociative identity disorder.
  • Chapter 5. Diagnostic dilemmas posed by chronic fatigue syndrome, headaches, and irritable bowel syndrome; role of cultural factors in health practices; eating disorders; sleep disorders.
  • Chapter 6. Body dysmorphic disorder; male dysmorphia (excessive preoccupation with achieving a high degree of muscularity); techniques useful in coping with pain.
  • Chapter 7. The role of avoidance in anxiety disorder; similarities and differences between generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder; mass hysteria.
  • Chapter 8. Criteria for diagnosing sexual dysfunction; treatment of the dysfunctions; sex education; cognitive-behavioral treatment of sexual victimizers; dangerousness, expert testimony.
  • Chapter 9. Cultural factors in personality disorders.
  • Chapter 10. Psychological changes produced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ECT's effectiveness; racial and ethnic differences in suicide rate.
  • Chapter 11. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia; relationship between genetic factors and the prenatal environment.
  • Chapter 12. Brain-experience interactions; use of brain imaging techniques in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Capter 13. Use of incentives to discontinue use of cocaine; pathological gambling; use of the nicotine patch.
  • Chapter 14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in, adults.
  • Chapter 15. Early identification of autism; the spectrum of autistic disorders.
  • Chapter 16. Three extensive therapy case studies; similarities and differences between cognitive and socialcognitive therapeutic approaches.
  • Chapter 17. The rights of patients and duty to warn; public policy issues.

Special Features

  • Resilience and Vulnerability series explores the roles of resilience and vulnerability in maladaptive behavior.
  • First Person series presents accounts of mental illness told by people who have experienced it.
  • Research Close-Up series reviews in depth, particular techniques, methods, and findings.
  • Case Study series presents clinical material that brings to life key ideas related to particular clinical disorders.
  • Q&A series presents clinical material that brings to life key ideas related to particular clinical disorders.

Retained Pedagogical Features

We continue to use the successful pedagogical features of previous editions. All the tables and figures have been designed for ease of understanding and attractiveness. Boxes throughout the book highlight concepts, illustrate phenomena, and present information in detail. These boxes present case studies, research close-ups, and reinforce concepts such as vulnerability and resilience that run through the book.

A Focus on the Student:

We see the Abnormal Psychology course as having enormous applicability to students' lives. Virtually every time we have taught the course, several students have told us about family members and friends who are struggling with serious psychological problems. Each of these struggles involves other people who care about the suffering individual. As a consequence, each instance of maladaptive behavior affects several, often many, people. We have borne this multiplier effect in mind in writing this book. We have also borne in mind the science of abnormal psychology and its treatment. Whether students are psychology majors or students in other areas who want to know what psychological abnormality is about, we believe it is important for them to appreciate abnormal psychology as a scholarly, research-oriented discipline and to become familiar with the theories, methods, and findings that make the field so vibrant. We hope our book helps students personally, as well as, intellectually.

Teaching and Learning Package

For the Instructor

The Instructor's Resource Manual. Barbara Mitchell, St. Edwards University, has prepared this comprehensive teaching tool. Each chapter of the Instructor's Resource Manual contains a Chapter Outline which highlights the main topics of the chapter, a list of Learning Objectives describing the key concepts students should master, Lecture Suggestions including supplemental topics for generating class discussions, Student Activities including suggestions for out of class exercises and projects, and Video and Media Resources listing the multimedia products available to accompany the text.

The Test Item File. Joseph J. Palladino, a test construction specialist at the University of Southern Indiana, has reviewed, revised, and written new test questions to create a Test Item File of over 1,800 test questions, including multiple choice and essay. To facilitate the creation of tests, each question is identified as conceptual/applied or factual/definitional and is page referenced to the textbook.

Prentice Hall Custom Test Manager (available for Windows and Macintosh platforms). The test item file is also available in electronic format, allowing instructors to create multiple tests, add their own questions, or edit existing questions.

Prentice Hall Color Transparencies for Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. Add visual impact to the study of abnormal and clinical psychology with these color illustrations. Designed for large classroom settings, the set includes many illustrations in addition to the ones found in the text, offering a wealth of additional resources to enhance lectures and reinforce student learning.

ABC News/PH Video Library for Abnormal Psychology. Segments from award-winning ABC News programs, including 20/20, Primetime Live, and Nightline cover issues such as drugs and alcoholism, psychotherapy, autism, crime motivation, depression, and a variety of additional topics. These three- to eighteen-minute segments are used by many instructors as platforms from which to launch class lectures or classroom discussion.

Patients as Educators: Video Cases in Abnormal Psychology by James H. Scully, Jr., MD and Alan M. Dahms, Ph.D., Colorado State University. This exclusive video contains a series of ten patient interviews illustrating a range of disorders. Each interview is preceded by a brief history of the patient and a synopsis of some major symptoms of the disorder, and ends with a summary and a brief analysis.

For the Student

The Study Guide. Elaine Cassel, Marymount University, has prepared this study guide to aid students in learning, studying, and understanding the concepts. Every chapter has a brief chapter overview, a brief outline with space for note-taking, a list of learning objectives, a key-terms exercise, and two practice tests; one testing concept recollection, and the other testing concept understanding and application.

The Companion Website. www.prenhall.com/sarason A free electronic study guide is available to help your students review the major points of each chapter. Each chapter contains an outline, a list of learning objectives, a series of objective quizzes to test comprehension and retention, and hot links to a variety of website destinations relevant to the subject matter of the chapter. Students receive immediate feedback on the quizzes and have the ability to e-mail their results to their instructors and/or teaching assistants.

Asking the Right Questions in Abnormal Psychology. This book by Stuart M. Keeley, Bowling Green State University, presents a basic critical-thinking methodology, then asks students to apply this method to a variety of classic research studies in psychopathology.

Acknowledgments

Our debt to researchers who have studied aspects of abnormal psychology is enormous. We are also indebted to our colleagues who have discussed various clinical and research issues with us. We appreciate their interest, patience, and lucid explanations. Many individuals, most of whom we did not know, have told us about their personal problems and shared their experiences with us. Finally, we thank our many students who, over the years, have raised probing questions and sometimes suggested answers to difficult conceptual and research questions. Our indebtedness to all the individuals we have mentioned is deep. We wish we could thank all of them individually. Because there are hundreds of them, we cannot list their names here. We hope they all accept the heartfelt thanks we offer here.

We have also benefited from the insightful comments and suggestions provided by these reviewers:

Pamela Balls Organista
University of San Francisco

Lawrence G. Calhoun
University of North Carolina, Charlotte

James W. Selby
University of North Carolina, Charlotte

William A. Montgomery
Angelo State University

Howard Markowitz
Hawaii Pacific University

David G. Weight
Brigham Young University.

We want to express our appreciation to the PrenticeHall team for all they have contributed to the publication of this book. We especially thank Stephanie Johnson, Jayme Heffler, Randy Pettit, Stephanie Carpenter, and Sharon Cosgrove. As usual, Betty Johnson made a major contribution. Myrna Torrie did a fine job when we needed her help.

Irwin Sarason, Barbara Sarason

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