I. THE WRITING PROCESS.
1. What Is Academic Writing?
What is the proper subject of academic writing?
Characteristics of academic writing.
The Academic Writer’s Handbook.
2. Preparing to Write in an Academic Setting.
Understanding your assignment.
Generating ideas and information.
Selecting, organizing, expanding information.
3. Writing a Working Thesis and a First Draft.
Writing a working thesis.
Writing a first draft.
Sample student paper: first draft.
4. Revising the Paper.
Global revision: bringing your main ideas into focus.
Section-level revision: developing your main idea.
Responding to editorial advice from peers and instructors.
Sample student paper: final draft “keep the laptops, change the teaching”
5. Paragraphs: Building Blocks of Academic Writing.
Unity: giving each paragraph a controlling idea and sticking to it.
Coherence: moving from sentence to sentence with a plan.
Developing the content of paragraphs.
Writing and revising introductions and conclusions.
6. Document Design.
Text and document design.
Images and document design.
The importance of document design.
II. WORKING WITH INDIVIDUAL SOURCES.
7. Understanding and Evaluating Print Sources.
Understanding print sources.
Evaluating print sources.
Reading sources carefully.
8. Understanding and Evaluating Web Sites and Images.
Understanding web sites.
Evaluating web sites.
9. Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting Sources.
Referring to sources.
Summarizing and paraphrasing sources.
Weaving summaries, paraphrases, and quotations into your paragraphs.
10. Avoiding Plagiarism.
Causes of plagiarism.
Rules for avoiding plagiarism.
Determining common knowledge.
Plagiarism and the internet.
Collaborating and plagiarism.
III. RESEARCH: LOCATING AND SYNTHESIZING MULTIPLE SOURCES.
11. The Research Process.
Defining the task: topic, purpose, and audience.
Identifying your research question.
Generating a plan for research.
Devising a working thesis and writing a draft.
Record-keeping: creating a working bibliography.
12. Locating Electronic and Print Sources.
Reviewing sources for preliminary research and reading.
Focusing your research.
Locating sources on the web.
Additional web sites for researchers.
Bringing your research to an end.
13. Synthesizing Sources.
Understanding your purpose for synthesizing sources.
Creating an index to your sources.
Building the paper by working with your index.
Demonstration synthesis: building a source-based paper
IV. MLA DOCUMENTATION.
14. Using the MLA System of Documentation.
Quick index–MLA documentation basics.
In-text citations in MLA format.
Entries in the MLA works cited list.
V. APA, CMS, CSE DOCUMENTATION.
15. Using the APA, CMS, and CSE Systems of Documentation.
Quick index–APA documentation basics.
In-text citations in the APA style format.
Entries in the APA references list.
CMS system of documentation.
First and subsequent references in CMS notes.
CMS note style.
CSE system of documentation.
In-text citations in the CSE format.
Entries in the CSE references list.
VI. WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES.
16. Writing in the Humanities.
Areas of interest.
Writing in the humanities.
17. Writing in the Social Sciences.
Areas of interest.
Writing in the social sciences.
18. Writing in the Sciences.
Areas of interest.
Writing in the sciences.
19. Applying Principles of Academic Writing to Business Settings.
The fundamentals of business communication.
Writing e-mails and instant messages.
Writing letters of inquiry, complaint, and application.
Writing resumes (paper and web-based).
Making oral presentations.
VII. LIBRARY OF ACADEMIC WRITING.
Preparing for summary.
Writing the summary.
Example summary in the humanities: the grapes of wrath by John Steinbeck (as written by student Josh Harris).
Example summary in the social sciences: nickel and dimed: on (not) getting by in America by Barbara Ehrenreich (as written by student Anna Chin).
Planning and writing the paper.
A note on audience.
Example explanation in the social sciences: the ‘idea’ of money by Aaron Cooper.
Example explanation in the sciences: North American elk by Michael Maya.
Academic argument defined
Making a claim.
Establishing yourself as trustworthy.
Supporting your claim with logical reasons.
Supporting your claim with emotional reasons.
Avoiding fallacies of evidence and logic.
Responding to counterarguments.
Writing your argument.
Example argument in the sciences: comparison of two strains of wine-producing yeasts by Clarence S. Ivie III.
Example argument in the humanities: the role of in Kate Chopin’s “a shameful affair” by Brandy Brooks.
Planning and writing the paper.
Measures of a successful analysis.
Example analysis in the social sciences: the coming Apart of a dorm society by Edward Peselman.
Example analysis in the sciences: earthworms as indicators of toxicity by Jennifer Smith.
Critiques as part of a larger paper.
Planning and writing a paper-length critique.
Example critique in the humanities: continue teaching heart of darkness by Eleanor Russell.
Example critique in the social sciences: television and attention disorders by Paulo Ludivici.
25. Writing Essay Exams.
Essay exam writing defined.
Planning and writing the essay.
A note on “big ideas”.
Example essay in the humanities by Alex Sigorsky.
Example essay in the sciences by Michael Theoharides.
26. Web Pages.
The unique qualities of web-based documents.
Planning the content.
Creating the web site’s structure.
Designing the pages.
Building the site.
Example website: the Ndebele wallpainting project by students at the Evergreen State College-Tacoma.
VIII. EDITING FOR CORRECTNESS.
27. Constructing Sentences.
The five basic sentence patterns.
28. Correcting Sentence Fragments.
Repeating structures or compound predicates.
29. Correcting Comma Splices and Fused Sentences.
Common circumstances for fused sentences and comma splices.
Five ways of correcting fused sentences and comma splices.
30. Using Verbs.
Consistent use of principal verb parts.
Irregular verb forms.
Transitive and intransitive verbs.
Verb tense sequencing.
Active and passive voices.
The uses of mood.
31. Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement.
Third-person subject number and verb agreement.
Singular or plural third-person subject and verb.
32. Using Adjectives and Adverbs.
Adjectives and adverbs.
Adjectives and linking verbs.
Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs.
Comparative and superlative relationships.
Double comparisons, double superlatives, and double negatives.
Past and present participles as adjectives
33. Correcting Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers.
Modifiers and the words they should modify.
Avoiding dangling modifiers.
34. Using Nouns and Pronouns.
Pronouns as subjects.
Pronouns as objects.
Possessive nouns and pronouns.
Pronouns in the objective or subjective case in compound constructions .
Pronouns paired with a noun.
Appropriate pronoun case (whose, who, whom, whoever, whomever).
Pronoun case and comparison.
35. Correcting Errors in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement.
Clear pronoun reference.
36. Correcting Errors in Consistency.
Shifts in person and number.
Shifts in tense, mood, and voice.
Consistent use of direct or indirect discourse.
Clear, grammatical relations between sentence parts.
Consistent relations between subjects and predicates
Constructions with missing words.
Consistent, complete, and clear comparisons.
37. Correcting Faulty Parallelism.
Parallel words, phrases, and clauses with coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
Parallelism with correlative conjunctions: either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but also.
Parallelism in sentences with compared and contrasted elements.
IX. EDITING FOR CLARITY AND EMPHASIS.
38. Clear, Concise, and Direct Sentences.
39. Building Emphasis with Coordination and Subordination.
Coordinating conjunctions (and/but) and conjunctive adverbs (consequently).
Subordinating conjunctions (while, when, because).
Mixing coordination and subordination for sentence variety.
40. Choosing the Right Word.
The impact of word choices.
Setting a tone for your papers.
Biased, dehumanizing language.
41. Using End Punctuation.
The question mark.
The exclamation point.
42. Using Commas.
Commas with introductory and concluding expressions.
Commas before a coordinating conjunctions.
Commas between items in a series.
Commas to set off nonsequential elements.
Conventions of quoting, naming, and various forms of separation.
Misuse or overuse of commas.
43. Using Semicolons.
Linking independent clauses.
Linking independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore).
Linking independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but).
Separating items in a series.
Quotation marks and semicolons.
44. Using Apostrophes.
Possession with nouns and pronouns.
Contractions marking the omission of letters and numbers.
Plural forms of letters, numbers, and symbols.
45. Using Quotation Marks.
Dialogue and other material.
Misuse or overuse of quotation marks.
46. Using Other Marks.
Dashes for emphasis.
Parentheses to set off nonessential information.
Brackets for editorial clarification.
Ellipses to indicate a break in continuity.
XI. MECHANICS AND SPELLING.
47. Using Capitals.
The first letter of the first word in every sentence.
Words of significance in a title.
The first word in every line of poetry, according to conventions.
48. Using Italics.
Words for specific emphasis.
Words, letters, and numbers to be defined or identified.
Titles of book-length works.
49. Using Abbreviations.
Titles of rank both before and after proper names.
Specific dates and numbers.
Acronyms, uppercase abbreviations, and corporate abbreviations.
Parenthetical and bibliographic references.
Misuse of abbreviations.
50. Using Numbers in Writing.
Numbers that begin sentences and one- or two-word numbers.
Conventional use of numbers.
51. Using Hyphens.
Word divisions at the end of a line.
52. Making Spelling Decisions.
Homonyms and commonly confused words.
Basic rules for ie/ei.
Rules for using prefixes.
Rules for using suffixes.
Rules for forming plurals.
XII. ESL REFERENCE GUIDE.
53. Using English Nouns, Pronouns, and Articles.
Using different classes of English nouns.
Using articles with nouns.
Using nouns with prepositions.
54. Using English Verbs.
Distinguishing different types of verbs and verb constructions.
Changing verb forms.
Changing word order with verbs.
Using the helping verbs: auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.
Choosing gerunds and infinitives with verbs.
Using two- and three-word verbs, or phrasal verbs, with particles.
55. Using Modifiers and Connectors in English Sentences.
Using single-word adjectives and nouns as modifiers of nouns.
Using adjectival modifiers with linking verbs and prepositions.
Positioning adverbial modifiers.
Using phrases and clauses to modify nouns and pronouns.
Combining phrases and clauses with connecting words.
Arranging cumulative modifiers.
Glossary of Usage.