It has become amply clear that all live forms on Earth are the products of the constituent genes expressed under the influence of continuously changing natural environment. By the same token, gene expression is known to be modified by our (or by the modern) environment inclusive of factors such as gravity, altitude, temperature, atmospheric pressure and air quality, physical conditioning as well as nutrition and/or lifestyle. Life would not survive without recruiting endogenous adaptive mechanisms responsive to challenging environmnetal factors, Biology of adaptation as well as application of this knowledge has been discussed in both health and disease conditions such as cardiac ischemia and cardiomyopathies, stroke, dementia, Alzheimer's, cancer, metal toxicity, etc. The book will be of great interest to experimental biologists and health professionals dealing with benefits and failures of physiological and pathophysiological adaptations. It will also serve as an important source of information for young scientists, postdocs and students.