Additives for Plastics

Additives for Plastics

by Jiri Stepek, Hubert Daoust

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461264170
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 11/01/2012
Series: Polymers - Properties and Applications , #5
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983
Pages: 243
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

I. Additives Which Modify Physical Properties.- 1 Plasticizers.- 1.1 Thermodynamic Basis of Macromolecular Mixtures.- 1.1.1 Solubility of Polymers in Solvents.- 1.1.2 Flory-Huggins Interaction Parameter.- 1.1.3 Solubility Parameter.- 1.1.4 Phase Separation Phenomena.- 1.2 Reversible Gelation.- 1.3 Theory of Plasticization.- 1.3.1 Effect of Plasticizers on Thermal Mechanical Deformation of Rigid Polymeric Chains.- 1.3.2 Effect of Plasticizers on Tb and Tg Values.- 1.3.3 The Free Volume in Amorphous Polymers.- 1.3.4 Primary and Secondary Plasticizers.- 1.4. Classification of Plasticizers.- 1.4.1 Polar Aromatic and Polar Aliphatic Plasticizers.- 1.4.2 Characteristics of Plasticizers According to Their Chemical Structure.- 1.5. Plasticizer Anomalies and Antiplasticization.- 1.6. Loss of Plasticizers.- References.- 2 Lubricants and Mold-Release Agents.- 2.1 Lubricants.- 2.1.1 Principles of Their Action.- 2.1.2 Classification of PVC Lubricants According to Their Specific Action.- 2.1.3 Classification of PVC Lubricants According to Their Chemical Structure.- 2.1.4 Lubricants for Polyolefins.- 2.1.5 Basic Properties Necessary for Lubricants.- 2.2 Mold-Release Agents.- 2.2.1 Principles of Action.- 2.2.2 Some Examples of Mold-Release Agents.- References.- 3 Macromolecular Modifiers.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Homogenization of Polymer-Polymer Systems.- 3.3 Two-Phase Microheterogeneous Polymer-Polymer Systems.- 3.3.1 Effect of Glassy Polymer Matrix Phase on Impact Strength.- 3.3.2 Effect of Rubbery Phase Dispersed in Glassy Matrix on Impact Strength.- 3.3.3 Theory on Toughness of Microheterogeneous Two-Phase Polymer-Polymer Blends.- 3.4 Impact Modifiers for Glassy Polymers.- 3.4.1 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE).- 3.4.2 Ethylene-(Vinyl Acetate) Copolymers (EVA).- 3.4.3 Acrylic and Methacrylic Elastomers and MBS and ABS Terpolymers.- 3.4.4 Rubbers.- 3.5 Macromolecular Modifiers Used as Polymer Processing Aids.- References.- 4 Reinforcing Fillers, Reinforcing Agents, and Coupling Agents.- 4.1 Fillers.- 4.1.1 General Characteristics of Fillers and Composites.- 4.1.2 Fillers for Thermosetting Resins.- 4.1.3 Fillers for Plastomers.- 4.1.3.1 Polymer Reinforcement Factors.- 4.1.3.2 Classification of Fillers for Plastomers According to Their Reinforcement Activity.- 4.2 Reinforcing Agents for Laminates.- 4.2.1 Effect of Fillers or Reinforcing Agents on Basic Physical Properties of Composites.- 4.3 The Different Types of Fillers and Reinforcing Agents.- 4.3.1 Glass Fillers and Reinforcing Agents.- 4.3.1.1 Glass Fibers.- 4.3.1.2 Glass Microspheres.- 4.3.1.3 Glass Flakes.- 4.3.2 Fillers and Reinforcing Agents Made of Other Materials.- 4.3.2.1 Fibrous and Flaky Fillers and Fibrous Reinforcing Agents.- 4.3.2.2 Whiskers, Microfibers, and Powdered Fillers.- 4.3.3 Effect of Content and Size of Fillers on Composite Properties.- 4.4 Coupling Agents.- 4.4.1 Silane Coupling Agents.- 4.4.1.1 Action Mechanism.- 4.4.2 Organotitanate Coupling Agents.- 4.4.2.1 Action Mechanism.- 4.4.3 Other Types of Coupling Agents.- 4.4.4 Application Modes for Coupling Agents.- 4.4.5 Recommendations on the Use of Fillers and Filling Methods.- References.- 5 Colorants and Brightening Agents.- 5.1 Colorants.- 5.1.1 Inorganic Pigments.- 5.1.2 Organic Pigments.- 5.1.3 Criteria for Selection of Pigments.- 5.2 Brightening Agents.- 5.3 Methods Used for the Coloration of Plastics.- 5.3.1 Some Examples of Methods Used for the Coloration of Most Important Plastics.- References.- 6 Chemical and Physical Blowing Agents.- 6.1 Chemical Blowing Agents.- 6.1.1 Inorganic Agents.- 6.1.2 Organic Agents.- 6.1.2.1 Characteristics.- 6.1.3 Factors Acting on Blowing.- 6.2 Physical Blowing Agents.- References.- 7 Antistatic Agents.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Efficiency and Mechanism of Antistatic Agent Action.- 7.3 The Use of Antistatic Agents.- 7.3.1 Antistatic Agents Containing Nitrogen.- 7.3.2 Antistatic Agents Containing Phosphorus.- 7.3.3 Antistatic Agents Containing Sulfur.- 7.3.4 Betaine-Type Antistatic Agents.- 7.3.5 Non-Ion-Producing Antistatic Agents.- 7.3.6 Combinations of Antistatic Agents.- 7.3.7 Other Surfactant-Type Antistatic Agents.- 7.3.8 Special Antistatic Agents.- References.- II. Antiaging Additives (Antidegradents).- 8 Difficulty Stabilizable and Nonstabilizable Factors Provoking Plastic Degradation.- 8.1 Effects of Chemically and Physically Active Media.- 8.2 Effect of Ionizing Radiations.- 8.3 Mechanical Degradation.- References.- 9 Heat Stabilizers.- 9.1 Thermal Degradation.- 9.2 Thermal Stabilizers for Halogenated Polymers and Their Copolymers.- 9.2.1 Metallic Salt Types.- 9.2.2 Organic Stabilizers.- 9.2.3 Effect of Homogenization on Stabilizer Efficiency.- 9.2.4 Examples of Commercial Products.- References.- 10 Antioxidants and Metal Ion Deactivating Agents.- 10.1 Thermo-oxidative Degradation.- 10.2 Antioxidants.- 10.2.1 The Critical Concentration.- 10.2.2 Action Mechanism of Antioxidants.- 10.2.3 Antioxidants that Interrupt the Oxidation Chain Reaction (Primary Antioxidants).- 10.2.4 Peroxide Decomposers (Secondary Antioxidants).- 10.2.5 Carbon Blacks as Antioxidants.- 10.2.6 Synergetic and Antagonistic Effects of Antioxidant Combinations.- 10.3 Metal Ion Deactivating Agents.- References.- 11 Ultraviolet Protecting Agents.- 11.1 Photo-oxidative Degradation.- 11.2 UV Absorbers.- 11.2.1 Derivatives of 2-hydroxybenzophenone.- 11.2.2 Esters of Aromatic Acids and Aromatic Alcohols.- 11.2.3 Hydroxyphenyl Benzotriazoles.- 11.2.4 Special Absorbers.- 11.2.5 Survey of Commercial UV Absorbers.- References.- 12 Flame Retardants.- 12.1 Burning of Plastics.- 12.2 Burning Mechanism of Plastics.- 12.3 Classification of Flame Retardant Agents.- 12.3.1 Agents Containing Phosphorus Derivatives.- 12.3.2 Halogen-Containing Agents.- 12.3.3 Agents Containing Antimony Oxide.- 12.3.4 Special Fire Retardants.- 12.3.5 General Classification of Fire Retardants and Their Choice.- References.- 13 Biocides Against Biological Degradation of Plastics.- 13.1 Microbiological Degradation.- 13.2 Some Examples of Biocides.- 13.3 Protection Against Macrobiological Depreciation.- References.- 14 Brief Survey of Methods Used to Incorporate Additives into Polymer Matrices.- 14.1 Mixing.- 14.2 Conglomeration.- 14.3 Kneading and Internal Mixing.- 14.4 Granulation, Pelleting, and Tableting.- References.- Appendix. Abbreviations and Symbols.

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