The immense growth in the number of articles on adenosine cardioprotection in recent years has been related in large part to the hypothesis that adenosine plays a role in ischemic preconditioning. Ischemic preconditioning is the phenomenon in which a brief period of ischemia (and reperfusion) prior to a more prolonged occlusion reduces myocardial infarct size. This form of myocardial protection has received much interest because ischemic preconditioning has been shown to be the most potent means of reducing infarct size in all animal models so far tested.
Within the last six years, the principal focus of adenosine cardioprotection research has centered on the role of adenosine receptors. It is currently thought that adenosine protects the ischemic heart primarily via the activation of adenosine A1 receptors located on the cardiac myocytes.
Adenosine is used clinically for terminating supraventricular tachycardia, and as a diagnostic tool in coronary imaging, and has been used postoperatively for blood pressure control after heart surgery. There are also recent reports that adenosine may be safely tolerated and a potentially beneficial additive to cardioplegic solutions during open heart surgery in humans. There is even evidence that ischemic preconditioning may occur in humans under various clinical situations.
This volume contains chapters from contributors to the first three symposia on 'Adenosine, Cardioprotection, and its Clinical Application'. All aspects of adenosine cardioprotection and ischemic preconditioning, including potential mechanisms and clinical applications, are discussed by experts in these areas. The reader will find this book to be an excellent source of information on these topics, as well as a guide to future experiments.
Table of Contents
I: Adenosine and Cardioprotection. 1. Adenosine and Cardioprotection; R.M. Mentzer, Jr., R. Lasley. II: Cardioprotection and Mechanisms of Ischemic And Reperfusion Injury. 2. Concept of Cardioprotection Against Myocardial Ischemia; M. Hori. 3. The Late Phase of Preconditioning Against Myocardial Stunning; R. Bolli, et al. 4. Coronary Perfusion as the Major Determinant of Myocardial Contractility in the Heart: Implication for Myocardial Hibernation; M. Kitakaze. 5. Myocardial Protection from Reperfusion Injury with Adenosine; J. Vinten-Johansen, Z.-Q. Zhao. III: Cellular Mechanisms of Cardioprotection in Ischemic Preconditioning. 6. Protein Kinase C - the Key-Enzyme in Ischemic Preconditioning? C. Weinbrenner, J.M. Downey. 7. Adenosine, Cardioprotection and Potential Mechanisms; R. Lasley. 8. Activation of Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase Mediates Cardioprotection in Ischemic Preconditioning: Important Role of Protein Kinase C; M. Kitakaze, et al. 9. Role of Mn-SOD Induction in the Second Window Phenomenon of Preconditioning of Ischemic Hearts; T. Kuzuya, et al. 10. Opioid Receptors, KATP Channels and Ischemic Preconditioning; G.J. Gross, J.E. Schultz. 11. Bradykinin and Preconditioning Against Infarction; T. Miura, et al. 12. Preconditioning in Human Muscle and Myocytes; C.S. Carr, D.M. Yellon. 13. Protein Kinase C and Adenosine Synergistically Activate ATP-Sensitive Potassium Currents: Implications for Ischemic Preconditioning; Y. Liu, et al. IV: Clinical Application of New Strategies to Protect the Ischemic Heart. 14. Adenosine and Myocardial Protection in Humans; R.M. Mentzer, Jr. 15. Clinical Applications of Ischemic Preconditioning; Y. Birnbaum, R.A. Kloner. 16. Clinical Pharmacology of Preconditioning and Adenosinergic Drugs; H. van Belle. 17. Clinical Application of Ischemic Preconditioning by ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener; N. Arakawa, et al. 18. Potassium Channel Openers and Cardiac Surgery; L.P. Perrault, P. Menasché. 19. Anti-ischemic Effects of the ATP-sensitive Potassium Channel Opener During Coronary Angioplasty; S. Saito, et al. 20. Clinical Impact of Ischemic Preconditioning on Infarct Size and Coronary No-Reflow Phenomenon after Successful Recanalization in the Acute Myocardial Infarction; K. Komamura, et al. Index.