Adiponectin is secreted from the adipocytes cells that make up the adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularized endocrine organ, and its secretion profiles may vary with obesity. It is known to have anti-metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation represents a vital link between metabolic disease and cancer. Serum/plasma adiponectin levels depend on diet, physical activity, and inheritance. Epidemiologic observations suggest a potential link between obesity and malignancies. Therefore, obesity and its associated metabolic disorders represent a serious risk factor to human health and welfare. We discuss the significant features of this exciting but very complex molecule (adiponectin), and focus on recent findings highlighting its mechanism of action and translation from metabolic syndrome to carcinogenesis. This book also discusses the biochemical and molecular evidence regarding the relationship between adiponectin and carcinogenesis and provides several future perspectives on the role of adiponectin as a target for prevention and therapy.