Table of Contents Charts and Figures. Foreword by Betty Schrampfer Azar. Preface and Acknowledgments. To the Instructor. To the Student.
THE VERB SYSTEM. 1. The Verb Tenses.
Discovering the Grammar of the Verb System. Analyzing Verbs and Verbals. Explanation 1Verbs and Verbals. Practicing with Verbs and Verbals. Discussion of the Verb Tenses. Analyzing Verb Tenses. Practicing the Verb Tenses. Explanation 2Comparison of the Verb Tenses: Important Differences to Remember. Analysis of Tenses in a Long Piece of Writing. Explanation 3Tenses in a Long Piece of Writing. Explanation 4Time Frame. Explanation 4 (continued). 2. Voice: Active and Passive Sentences.
Discovering the Grammar of Passive Voice. Explanation 1Passive Voice. Practicing Active and Passive Forms. Explanation 2When to Choose the Active Voice. Explanation 3When to Choose the Passive Voice. Explanation 4Coherence. Analyzing Cohesion. Using the Verb System to Write Cohesive Passages. Using the Verb System in Writing. 3. Auxiliary Verbs.
Part I. Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
Discovering the Grammar of Modals. Analyzing Modals. Explanation 1Tricky Modals. Practicing Modals in Context.
Part II. Emphatic Auxiliary Verbs.
Explanation 2Auxiliaries for Emphasis. Analyzing Emphatic Auxiliaries. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Research Projects.
II. RELATIVE CONCEPTS.
4. Relative Clauses, Relative Phrases, and Cleft Sentences.
Part I. Relative Clauses.
Discovering the Grammar of Relative Clauses. Explanation 1Relative Clauses. Analyzing Relative Clauses. Practicing Relative Clauses. Using Relative Clauses in Writing: Defining Summaries and Paraphrases.
Part II. Relative PhrasesAdjective Phrases.
Discovering the Grammar of Relative Phrases. Explanation 2Forming Phrases from Relative Clauses. Discussion of Participial Phrases. Practicing Modifying Clauses and Phrases.
Part III. Cleft SentencesAnother Way to Express Emphasis.
Discovering the Grammar of Cleft Sentences. Explanation 3Cleft Sentences. Practicing Cleft Sentences. Preparing for Standardized Tests.
III. ADVERBIAL CONCEPTS.
5. Adverbial Expressing Relationships of Time, Place, Situation, Cause, Effect, and Purpose.
Part I. Adverbials of Time, Place, and Situation.
Discovering the Grammar of Adverbials. Explanation 1Adverbials and Cohesion. Analyzing Concepts Expressed Through Adverbial Clauses, Phrases, and Conjunctions. Explanation 2Conjunctions to Express Time Relationships. Analyzing Time Relationships. Explanation 3Time Clause and Phrase Conjunction. Explanation 4More Time Clause and Phrase Conjunctions. Explanation 5Sequence of Tense in Adverbial Clauses of Time. Explanation 6Practicing Adverbial Concepts of Time. Using Adverbials of Time and Situation in Writing.
Part II. Adverbial Clauses of Cause/Effect and Reason/Result.
Analyzing the Grammar of Cause and Effect. Explanation 7Cause Clause and Phrase Subordinates (Conjunctions). Explanation 8Result Clause and Phrase Conjunctions. Analyzing Some Confusing Words: Such and So. Explanation 9Result Clauses with So. . .That and Such. . .That. Practicing So and Such. Explanation 10So Versus Very. Using Adverbial Clauses and Phrases in Writing.
Part III. Adverbial Clauses to Express Purpose.
Analyzing Clauses of Purpose. Explanation 11Purpose Clause and Purpose Phrase Conjunctions. Using Adverbial Concepts for Synthesizing and Summary Writing.
6. Participial Phrases and Absolute Constructions.
Part I. Participial Phrases.
Discovering the Grammar of Participial Phrases. Explanation 1Making Adjective and Adverb Clauses from Participial Phrases. Analyzing Participial Phrases. Explanation 2Derivation of Participial Phrases. Practicing with Participial Phrases.
Part II. Absolute Constructions.
Discovering the Grammar of Absolute Constructions. Explanation 3Derivation of Absolute Constructions. Analyzing Absolute Constructions. Practicing Relative Clauses, Relative Phrases, and Absolutes. Using a Variety of Grammatical Structures for Paraphrasing. Preparing for Standardized Tests: Relative Clauses, Participial Phrases, Cleft Sentences, Absolutes, and Appositives.
7. Adverbial Concepts of Contrast (Concession/Opposition) and Comparison.
Part I. Clauses and Phrases of Concession.
Analyzing the Grammar of Concession. Explanation 1Subordinating Conjunctions and Prepositions of Concessions. Explanation 2Coordinating Conjunctions of Concession.
Clauses and Phrases of Opposition.
Explanation 3Subordinators of Opposition. Discovering the Meaning of Tricky Transitions: On the Contrary, Contrary to, On the Other Hand. Explanation 4Contrary to, On the Contrary, On the Other Hand.
Part III. Clauses of Comparison.
Analyzing the Grammar of Comparison. Explanation 5Comparative Structures. Practicing Adverbials of Comparison. Explanation 6Special Comparatives of Proportion. Analysis of Comparatives of Proportion and Ratio. Practicing with Comparatives of Proportion and Ratio. Using Adverbial Subordinates of Cause/Effect, Concession, Opposition and Comparison in Writing. 8. Adverbial Clauses Expressing Condition.
Discovering the Grammar of Conditional Sentences. Discussion: Real ConditionalsPresent, Future Versus Past. Explanation 1Conditionals. Reducing If-Clauses. Practicing Conditionals. Explanation 2Occurrence of Real and Unreal Conditional Sentences. Analysis of Conditionals. Using Conditionals to Write Answers to Academic Questions. Explanation 3Unusual Conditionals. Analyzing the Meaning of Conditionals. Using Conditionals in Writing. Analyzing Other Ways to Express Hypothetical Ideas. Explanation 4Other Ways to Express Hypothetical Ideas. Using Adverbials for Synthesizing: Paraphrasing More Then One Source to Write a Summary. Preparing for Standardized Tests. Discussion: Predicting Test Answers.
IV. NOUN CONCEPTSNOUN CLAUSES, GERUNDS, INFINITES, ABSTRACT NOUN PHRASES.
9. Noun Clauses.
Discovering the Grammar of Noun Clauses. Explanation 1Noun Clause Versus Sentence. Analyzing Noun Clauses. Practicing Noun Clauses. Analyzing Noun Clauses (continued). Explanation 2What
Analyzing Noun Clauses in Other Roles. Explanation 3Summary of Noun Clauses in Apposition. Explanation 4Subjunctive Noun Clauses. Analyzing Reduced Noun Clauses. Using Noun Clauses in WritingReported Speech. 10. Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases: Expressing Noun Concepts and Other Ideas.
Part I. Infinitives.
Discovering the Grammar of Infinitives. Analyzing Infinitives as Other Parts of Speech. Explanation 1Infinitives and Their Functions in Academic Writing. Using Infinitives in Writing.
Part II. Gerunds.
Discovering the Grammar of Gerunds. Discussion: Definition of Gerunds. Explanation 2Gerunds and Their Functions in Academic Writing. Using Infinitives in Writing.
Part III. Gerunds Versus Infinitives.
Explanation 3Subjects of Gerunds and Infinitives. Practicing Gerunds and Infinitives. Explanation 4The Difference Between Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects in a Sentence. Explanation 5Differences Between Gerunds and Infinitives as Objects in a Sentence. How and When Gerund and Infinitive Objects are Used. Explanation 5(continued)When to Use Infinitives and Gerunds as Objects of Verbs. Using Gerunds and Infinitives in Writing.
Part IV. Abstract Noun Phrases.
Explanation 6Abstract Noun Phrase Formation. Discussion: Usage of Noun Clauses, Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases. Using Noun Clauses, Infinitives, Gerunds, and Abstract Noun Phrases in Writing. Preparing for Standardized Tests.
Review Chapter 1. Parts of Speech and Phrases.
I. Parts of Speech.
ExplanationParts of Speech. Summary of Noun Phrases.
II. Phrases. Review Chapter 2. Clauses and Sentences.
Explanation 1Clauses. Explanation 2Formation of Subordinate Clauses.
Explanation 3Types of Simple Sentences. Definitions of Sentence Parts and Terms.
III. Combining Clauses and Phrases into Sentences.
IV. How Punctuation and Phrase Patterns Can Help You Choose Answers in Multiple-Choice Grammar Tests Like the TOEFL.
Preparing for Standardized Tests.
Appendix 3Verbs That Take Infinitives and/or Gerunds.