This book presents the tools of nanotechnology that can build, image, and manipulate nanostructures to build materials and devices. It bridges the gap between detailed technical publications that are beyond the grasp of non-specialists and popular science books, which may be more science fiction than fact. It provides a fascinating, scientifically sound treatment, accessible to engineers and scientists outside the field and even to students at the undergraduate level. This book concludes with a look at some cutting-edge applications and prophecies for the future. It builds a solid background in characterization and fabrication methods while integrating the physics, chemistry, and biology facets. It focuses on applications and examining engineering aspects of nanotube and nanofiber materials.