More than sixty years have elapsed since Linde first liquefied air on a commercial scale and prepared the way for separating of other gaseous mixtures. His work, however, was not of an isolated nature. It was conceived eighteen years after air had, for the first time, been liquefied in the laboratory by Pictet in Geneva and Caillete in Paris. Linde's liquefaction of air was followed by Dewar's work on hydrogen liquefaction in London and by the setting up at Leiden of Kamerlingh Onnes's famous low temperature laboratory. These advances in low temperature or cryogenic technology have resulted in the establishment of a completely new and thriving industry. Cryogenic engineering is concerned with developing and improving low temperature processes, techniques, and equipment; determining the physical properties of structural and related materials used in producing, maintaining, and using low temperatures; and the practical application of low temperature techniques and processes. These low tempera tures are below those usually encountered in refrigerating engineering. It is rather difficult to assign a definite temperature which serves to divide refrigerating engineering from cryogenic engineering. A temperature below _lSOoC, however, is generally associated with cryogenic engineering.
Table of ContentsGeneral Remarks.- A Few Remarks on the Beginnings of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory.- Research Facilities of the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory.- Cryogenic Equipment.- A-1 An Efficient Vacuum-Jacketed Liquid Nitrogen or Liquid Oxygen Storage Vessel.- A-2 The Aluminum Dewar.- A-3 Liquid Oxygen Equipment for Use in Aircraft.- A-4 The Refrigerated Transport Dewar.- A-5 Helium Refrigeration.- A-6 The Herrick L. Johnston Air Tactical Dewar.- Cryogenic Equipment (continued).- B-1 Experimental Dewars Developed by the National Bureau of Standards.- B-2 A Re-liquefying Hydrogen Refrigerator.- B-3 Joining Aluminum to Stainless Steel.- B-4 The Transfer of Liquefied Gases.- B-5 A Transfer Line for Liquefied Gases.- B-6 Performance of an Air Expansion Engine.- B-7 A High-Vacuum Seal-Off Valve.- Low Temperature Instrumentation.- C-1 Carbon Resistors, Pressure Transducers and Vibration Pickups Used for Measurements of Temperature, Pressure and Vibration at Liquid Hydrogen Temperatures.- C-2 Continuous Analysis of Ortho-Parahydrogen Mixtures.- C-3 A Constant Temperature Control System for the Range, Room Temperature to -320°F.- C-4 A Hydrogen Gas Meter Unit with Remote Totalization of Flow.- C-5 Pulsation Damping.- C-6 The Application of Commercial Electrical Equipment to Locations where Hydrogen Gas May Exist in Quantities Sufficient to Produce Explosive or Ignitable Mixtures.- C-7 Behavior of Electrical Insulation Materials and of Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants at Temperatures of -100° to -200°F.- Low Temperature Instrumentation (continued).- D-1 Thermistor Indicating Flowmeter for Low Flow Rates of Nitrogen and Hydrogen Gases.- D-2 A Sensitive Electronic Liquid Level Indicator for Condensed Gases.- D-3 Low Temperature Electrical Resistance of Fifteen Commercial Conductors.- D-4 Carbon Resistors and Variable Differential Transformers for Liquid Level Indication.- D-5 Glass in Cryogenics.- D-6 Modification of a Calorimetric Oxygen Detector for Use with Non-Equilibrium Hydrogen.- D-7 An Optical Means of Liquid Level Sensing.- D-8 Trace Oxygen Analysis for Liquid Hydrogen Production.- Cryogenic Applications.- E-1 Helium Production Process.- E-2 Low Temperature Liquids as Coolants in Guided Missiles.- E-3 The Application of Low Temperature Processes in Production of Chemicals.- E-4 Cryogenic Engineering in the Production and Distribution of Liquefied Atmospheric Gases.- E-5 Carbon Dioxide in Low Temperature Testing.- Low Temperature Insulation.- F-1 Performance of Heat Insulating Materials Down to 20°K.- F-2 Vacuum-Powder Insulation.- F-3 Thermal Radiation Absorption by Metals.- F-4 Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene) Insulation at Low Temperatures.- Properties of Materials.- G-1 The Mechanical Properties Testing Program at the NBS-AEC Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory.- G-2 Apparatus for Tensile Testing in the Temperature Range of 4.2° to 300° K.- G-3 The Compressive Strengths of Some Technical Metals Between 4.2° and 300°K.- G-4 Low Temperature Kiloatmosphere Apparatus.- G-5 Thermal Conductivity of Solids at Low Temperatures.- G-6 Accurate Measurement of Certain Physical Properties Down to 20°K.- G-7 A New Criterion for Superconductivity in Metals.- Special Cryogenic Equipment and Processes.- H-1 The Cryostat in Industrial Research.- H-2 The Gas Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis of the Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion at Low Temperatures Under Pressure.- H-3 The Liquid Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis of the Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion at Low Temperatures Under Pressure.- H-4 Ortho-Parahydrogen Conversion Studies.- H-5 Safety Engineering as Applied to the Handling of Liquefied Atmospheric Gases.- H-6 Vibration Testing of Airborne Cryogenic Equipment.- H-7 Thermal Oscillations in Low Temperature Apparatus.- Cryogenic Processes.- J-1 Theory Versus Practice in Low Temperature Engineering.- J-2 Freon Cascade Refrigerator for Liquid Air Plant Precooler.- J-3 Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Plant.- J-4 Performance of NBS Hydrogen Liquefier Plant.- J-5 Manufacture, Liquefaction and Distribution of Dry Ice and Liquid Carbon Dioxide.- J-6 The Effect of Some Variables in Low Temperature Processes.- Author Index.- List of Delegates.