The third volume of "Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics" contains the th scientific contributions presented at the 13 Congress of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics, held on October 19-21, 1989 in New Orleans, USA. The conference was organized and chaired by Dr. Herbert Polesky from Minneapolis. He and the local organizing committee which consisted of our friends and colleagues (J. Soubrada, L.R.Bryant, Dale D.Dykes, Ch.Harrison, P.Newall and R. Walker) deserve the thanks of our Society for a very successful meeting. Herb Polesky has also contributed a great deal to the preparation of this book. The contributions to the conference covered all fields of forensic haemo genetics, but an outstanding highlight of this conference was the application ofDNA-polymorphisms to paternity and to the identification of stains. This included basic lectures on biostatistical approaches as well as on molecular biology and many new technical approaches to our general and special aims. Forensic haemogenetics has now merged into a new discipline without having lost its original identity. On behalf of the Executive Committee of our Society I would like to extend my thanks to the authors of the articles contained in this book and to Springer-Verlag for having made such a quick publication possible. The volume should give the reader a picture of the state of the art and a survey of the most recent developments in the field of forensic and general haemo genetics.
Table of Contents1 DNA Polymorphisms.- 1.1 Biostatistics.- Measurement Error in Determination of Band Size for Highly Polymorphic Single-Locus DNA Markers.- Use of a Spreadsheet Template and Microcomputer to Calculate Gene Frequencies of Multi-allele Systems.- Likelihood Calculations in Paternity Testing on the Basis of DNA Fingerprints.- Biostatistical Approaches Using Minisatellite DNA Patterns in Paternity Cases (Mother-Child-Putative Father Trios).- Kinship Plausibilities from DNA Fingerprints.- 1.2 Methodology, Data Bases.- Rapid Preparation of DNA for RFLP Analysis and DNA Fingerprinting.- A Simple and Efficient Non-organic Procedure for the Extraction of DNA from Evidentiary Samples.- DNA Extraction from Small Samples Using a Microextraction Method with Low Gelling Temperature (LGT) Agarose.- VNTR Polymorphism: Reproducibility in Techniques and Interpretation.- A Non-isotopic DNA Detection System with the Sensitivity of 32P: Applications for Paternity and Forensic Identifications.- Rapid, Simple, Non-isotopic Probing of Southern Blots for DNA Fingerprinting.- Simultaneous DNA Probing of Paternity Cases Using Non-isotopic Methods.- Comparison of Chemiluminescent and Radioactive Methods of DNA Typing.- On the Effectiveness of Three DNA Probes in Hybridization Experiments Over HINF I Blots Containing Aged/Degraded Samples.- Accuracy, Precision and Site-to-Site Reproducibility in Analysis of DNA Polymorphisms for Identity Testing.- Elements of a Quality Assurance (QA)/Quality Control (QC) Program for DNA Testing.- Investigation of Aged Blood Samples by Means of Single-Locus DNA Probes.- Problems Associated with the Determination of Band Match Probabilities.- Allele Frequencies Distribution of Two VNTR Markers (YNH24; YNZ22) in PST I Digests from Random Italian Individuals (Population of Rome).- Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Analysis of DNA Polymorphic Loci that Exhibit a Continuous Distribution of Fragment Sizes.- Segregation of Single-Locus DNA-Fragments in a Large Family.- 1.3 Practical Use.- Comparison of HLA Antigens and DNA Polymorphisms in Parentage Testing.- A Comparative Paternity Study: DNA vs Traditional Testing.- Compatibility of Several HVR-Type Probes with Pvu II Restriction Endonuclease and Advantages of Pvu II Over Other Commonly Used Enzymes.- Analysis of Case Work Samples by Single Locus VNTR Polymorphisms.- Routine Use of a Single Locus DNA Probe.- Results on Selected Trios Tested with Two Single Locus DNA Probes.- Paternity Testing Using the Hypervariable 3’HVR DNA Probe.- Analysis of Disputed Paternities Using Hae III/YNH24 and Hinf I/MS31 RFLPs.- Investigation of the Use of DNA Probes L336 and YNH24 in Problems of Doubtful Parentage.- Clarification of a Two-Man Case Only by DNA Markers.- Characterization of DNA Probe pH30 (D4S139) and Preparation of Related Synthetic Oligonucleotides.- Casework Experience with DNA Profiling.- Exclusion of an Individual Charged with Rape by Allele-Specific DNA Profiling on Fetal Tissues.- Rapid Sex Determination Using Restriction Enzymes Digestion.- DNA Fingerprinting with Simple Repetitive Oligonucleotide Probes in Forensic Medicine.- Application of Simple Repeat Oligonucleotides for DNA Fingerprinting.- DNA Fingerprinting with M13 Probe.- Minisatellite DNA Probe MZ 1.3: Application in Paternity Testing and Estimate of the Number of Genetic Loci.- Non-isotopic DNA Fingerprint Analyses with the Minisatellite Probe MZ 1.3.- DNA Fingerprinting in Paternity Analyses.- A Review of the Cases Submitted for DNA Analysis in the FBI Laboratory.- 1.4 PCR.- A Method for the Analysis of PCR Amplification Products to Identify Base-Pair Substitution and VNTR Polymorphisms.- Analysis of PCR Products (pMCT118) by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.- Effects of UV Damage on DNA Amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction.- Typing by Polymerase Chain Reaction Mediated Amplification of DNA Fragments in the HLA Class I Region and Direct DNA Sequencing.- Use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction for Typing GC Variants.- Amplification of Y-Chromosome-Specific Sequences in Biological Evidence.- 2 Conventional Markers.- 2.1 Alloantigens.- Differential Detection of A, B and H Antigens in Semen and Saliva Stains Detected by an ELISA Technique.- A Modified ELISA for the Detection of ABH Antigens in Bloodstains.- Mosaic Phenomenon of ABH and Lewis Antigen Expression in Minor Salivary Glands An Immunohistochemical Demonstration of the Transferase Activity.- Different Expression of Blood Group A Antigen in the Secretory Cells of Salivary Glands from German and Japanese Nonsecretor Individuals.- Different Epitopes of ABH Antigens Exist in Red Cell and Body Fluids.- Production of Monoclonal Antibody to ABH-Carrying ?-2-Seminoglycoprotein for ABO-Grouping of Semen by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).- Isolation and Identification of ABO Blood Group of Seminal Stains Mixed with Vaginal Secretion or Blood.- Histochemical Analysis of the Chemical Structure of Blood Group-Related Carbohydrate Chains in Human Pancreas.- Enzyme Immuno Assay for the Typing of the Gm(a) and Gm(f) Allotypes of Human IgG1 in Semen, Vaginal Secretions and Other Body Fluids.- Production of Monoclonal Antibodies IgG Allotypes and Their Use in Dot Immunobinding.- Allotyping by Immunoblot Using Polyclonal Antisera.- Whose Heritage is the Giant Stone Culture in Easter Island?.- The Generation of Class II Polymorphism by Recombination.- Polymorphism of HLA-DRB3 and DRB4 Genes Detected by RFLPs.- 2.2 Electrophoretic Polymorphisms.- Human Red Cell Acid Phosphatase (ACPI): The Primary Structure of the Two Isozymes, Bf and Bs, Encoded by the ACP1*B allele.- Further Evidence for a Silent Allele and a Rare Variant in the ADA System.- Intragenic Recombination Within the PGM1 Locus.- Practical Value of PGM 1 Subtyping in Blood and Semen Stains and Hair Roots.- Additional Data on PGP (EC 220.127.116.11) Polymorphism in Düsseldorf.- Biochemical and Population Genetics of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase in NW Portugal.- Group Specific Component Phenotyping by Ultrathin-Layer Agarose Isoelectric Focusing Using Chemical Spacers.- Haptoglobin Subtypes in the Swiss Population: Phenotype and Gene Frequencies Description of an Easy Method for Routine Typing.- Haptoglobin Subtyping by Agarose Isoelectric Focusing.- Haptoglobin Subtype Determination of Bloodstains.- The Application of Agarose Isoelectric Focusing in Paternity Testing.- Fast IEF of Some Polymorphic Proteins and Enzymes in Bloodstains Using the PhastSystem.- Isoelectric Focusing in Miniaturized Gels: Application to GC, PI, TF, and ORM Subtyping in Central Spain.- The Use of Hybrid Isoelectric Focusing for the Detection of Polymorphic Proteins and Enzymes in Bloodstains Analysis.- Distribution of Twelve Human Salivary Polymorphisms in Japanese Populations.- Inheritance of Some Electrophoretic Phenotypes of Human Hair.- HP, GLO and GC Polymorphism in the Balearic Islands (Spain): The Mediterranean Blueprint.- A Simple Dilution Technique for Assessing Red Cell Enzyme Activity in Cases of Single System Incompatibilities.- A Rapid High Resolution Separator IEF Technique for Phenotyping Alpha1-Antitrypsin.- PI M Subtyping: Indication for an Alpha1-Antitrypsin Null Allele in Three Paternity Cases.- Transferrin C Subtypes in Different Ethnic Groups and Spontaneous Abortion.- Polymorphism of Plasminogen in West Germany.- The Significance of Current and of Origin and Concentration of Sialidases for the Determination of Plasminogen Groups.- Coagulation Factor XIIIA and XIIIB Polymorphisms in the North of Germany (Mecklenburg Area).- Polymorphisms of Coagulation Factors 13A and 13B in West Germany.- Identification of F13A*7 as a Population Specific Marker.- Factor XIIIB (FXIIIB) in Disputed Paternity: Complete Analysis of a Family with the Rare Phenotypes 4-1 and 4-2.- Study of Genetic Polymorphism of Coagulation Factor XIIIB in a Italian Population Sample Using PAGIEF and Semi-dry Electroblotting.- Isoelectric Focusing of Orosomucoid in Agarose Gels.- ORM1 Subtypes in Hanover and Lower Saxony, FRG, by PAG SIEF and Immunoblotting (N = 1934); 11 Variants.- A Silent Allele in the Orosomucoid (ORM) System.- Genetic Polymorphism of Human Peptidase C (PEP C).- Kallikrein Phenotyping by Isoelectric Focusing.- 3 General Biostatistics.- The Probability of Paternity.- Seroanalysis and Expert Opinion in Practice.- The Effect of Blanks and Antigen Sharing in the HLA System on the Paternity Index.- Paternity Probability Calculation in “Exclusion” Cases.- 4 Varia.- A Remarkable Case of Affiliation: Exclusion from Paternity After 8 Years.- Legal Aspects of Disputed Paternities in Singapore.- Evaluation of Unusual Band Patterns in Stains of Biological Interest.- Characterisation of Vaginal Secretion Stains in Forensic Cases A Critical Review.- Monoclonal Antibodies Detect Sperm Antigens in Seminal Stains.- GDA-J/F3 Monoclonal Antibody: The Ideal Probe for Sperm Detection in Forensic Science.- Preparation and Application of Monoclonal Anti-P30 Antibody.- Chromosome Polymorphism in Paternity Investigations.- Plasma Protein Polymorphism in HIV-Seropositive Patients: GC- and TF*C-Subtypes and PI-System.- Distribution of C3 and BF Phenotypes in HIV-Seropositive Patients.- Plasma Protein Polymorphism in HIV-Seropositive Patients: Allotype Frequencies in the GM- and KM-System.