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Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing / Edition 1

Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing / Edition 1

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Advances in Industrial Mixing is a companion volume and update to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing. The second volume fills in gaps for a number of industries that were not covered in the first edition. Significant changes in five of the fundamental areas are covered in entirely updated or new chapters. The original text is provided as a searchable pdf file on the accompanying USB.

  • This book explains industrial mixers and mixing problems clearly and concisely.
  • Gives practical insights by the top professionals in the field, combining industrial design standards with fundamental insight.
  • Details applications in 14 key industries. Six of these are new since the first edition.
  • Provides the professional with information he/she did not receive in school.
  • Five completely rewritten chapters on mixing fundamentals where significant advances have happened since the first edition and seven concise update chapters which summarize critical technical information.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470523827
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 11/16/2015
Edition description: 2nd Revised ed.
Pages: 1044
Sales rank: 831,851
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.40(h) x 2.40(d)

About the Author

Suzanne M. Kresta is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alberta.

Arthur W. Etchells III is a retired DuPont Fellow with over forty years consulting in industrial mixing.

David S. Dickey is a consultant specializing in mixing processes and equipment with MixTech, Inc. He has more than forty years experience with mixing processes and equipment.

Victor Atiemo-Obeng is retired from The Dow Chemical Company where he worked as a scientist in the Engineering Science and Market Development department.

The North American Mixing Forum provides an opportunity for dialogue about mixing problems in a wide range of industrial applications.

Table of Contents

Contributors List xxxix

Editors’ Introduction xliii

Contents of the DVD, Including Instructional Videos lvii

A Technical Definition of Mixing 1
Joelle Aubin and Suzanne M. Kresta

Range of Industrial Mixing Applications 2

Three Dimensions of Segregation: A Technical Definition of Mixing 3

Identifying Mixing Problems: Defining the Critical Scales and Process Objectives 5

Notation 9

References 9

1a Residence Time Distributions 11
E. Bruce Nauman

1a-1 Introduction 12

1a-2 Measurements and Distribution Functions

1a-3 Residence Time Models of Flow Systems

1a-4 Uses of Residence Time Distributions

1a-5 Extensions of Residence Time Theory



1b Mean Age Theory for Quantitative Mixing Analysis 15
Minye Liu

1b-1 Introduction 15

1b-2 Age and Time in a Flow System 16

1b-3 Governing Equations of Mean Age and Higher Moments 17

1b-4 Computation of Mean Age 20

1b-5 Relations of Mean Age and Residence Time Distribution 25

1b-6 Variances and the Degree of Mixing 27

1b-7 Mean Age and Concentration in a CFSTR 31

1b-8 Probability Distribution Function of Mean Age 34

1b-9 Future Development of Mean Age Theory 39

Nomenclature 39

Greek Letters 40

References 41

2a Turbulence in Mixing Applications 43
Suzanne M. Kresta and Robert S. Brodkey

2a-1 Introduction 44

2a-2 Background

2a-3 Classical Measures of Turbulence

2a-4 Dynamics and Averages: Reducing the Dimensionality of the Problem

2a-5 Modeling the Turbulent Transport

2a-6 What Have We Learned?



2b Update to Turbulence in Mixing Applications 47
Marcio B. Machado and Suzanne M. Kresta

2b-1 Introduction 47

2b-2 The Velocity Field and Turbulence 48

2b-3 Spectrum of Turbulent Length Scales: Injection of Scalar (Either Reagent or Additive) and the Macro-, Meso-, and Microscales of Mixing 56

2b-4 Turbulence and Mixing of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 65

2b-5 Specifying Mixing Requirements for a Process 66

2b-6 Conclusions 78

Notation 78

Roman Characters 78

Greek Characters 79

References 80

3a Laminar Mixing: A Dynamical Systems Approach 85
Edit S. Szalai, Mario M. Alvarez, and Fernando J. Muzzio

3a-1 Introduction 86

3a-2 Background

3a-3 How to Evaluate Mixing Performance

3a-4 Physics of Chaotic Flows Applied to Laminar Mixing

3a-5 Applications to Physically Realizable Chaotic Flows

3a-6 Reactive Chaotic Flows

3a-7 Summary

3a-8 Conclusions



3b Microstructure, Rheology, and Processing of Complex Fluids 87
Patrick T. Spicer and James F. Gilchrist

3b-1 Introduction 87

3b-2 Literature Analysis—Mixing of Complex Fluids 90

3b-3 Common Complex Fluid Rheology Classes and Their Effects 92

3b-4 Conclusions 110

Nomenclature 110

Greek Symbols 111

References 111

4 Experimental Methods

Part A: Measuring Tools and Techniques for Mixing and Flow Visualization Studies 115
David A. R. Brown, Pip N. Jones, and John C. Middleton

4-1 Introduction 117

4-2 Mixing Laboratory

4-3 Power Draw or Torque Measurement

4-4 Single-Phase Blending

4-5 Solid–Liquid Mixing

4-6 Liquid–Liquid Dispersion

4-7 Gas–Liquid Mixing

4-8 Other Techniques

Part B: Fundamental Flow Measurement

4-9 Scope of Fundamental Flow Measurement Techniques

4-10 Laser Doppler Anemometry

4-11 Phase Doppler Anemometry

4-12 Particle Image Velocimetry



5a Computational Fluid Mixing 119
Elizabeth Marden Marshall and Andre Bakker

5a-1 Introduction 120

5a-2 Computational Fluid Dynamics

5a-3 Numerical Methods

5a-4 Stirred Tank Modeling Using Experimental Data

5a-5 Stirred Tank Modeling Using the Actual Impeller Geometry

5a-6 Evaluating Mixing from Flow Field Results

5a-7 Applications

5a-8 Closing Remarks




5b CFD Modeling of Stirred Tank Reactors 123
Minye Liu

5b-1 Numerical Issues 123

5b-2 Turbulence Models 131

5b-3 Quantitative Predictions 137

5b-4 Modeling Other Physics 142

Nomenclature 144

Greek Letters 144

References 145

6a Mechanically Stirred Vessels 149
Ramesh R. Hemrajani and Gary B. Tatterson

6a-1 Introduction 150

6a-2 Key Design Parameters

6a-3 Flow Characteristics

6a-4 Scale-up

6a-5 Performance Characteristics and Ranges of Application

6a-6 Laminar Mixing in Mechanically Stirred Vessels



6b Flow Patterns and Mixing 153
Suzanne M. Kresta and David S. Dickey

6b-1 Introduction 153

6b-2 Circulation Patterns 154

6b-3 Coupling the Velocity Field with Applications 178

Nomenclature 185

Greek Symbols 185

References 186

6c Vessel Heads: Depths, Volumes, and Areas 189
David S. Dickey, Daniel R. Crookston, and Reid B. Crookston

6c-1 Head Depth 190

6c-2 Head Volume 193

6c-3 Head Area 194

6c-4 Dimensionless Coefficients for Torispherical Heads 195

6c-5 Calculations for Conical Bottoms 197

6c-6 Other Types of Bottoms 199

Nomenclature 199

Dimensional Variables and Parameters 199

Dimensionless Variables and Parameters 199

Dimensionless Greek Symbols 200

References 200

7a Mixing in Pipelines 201
Arthur W. Etchells III and Chris F. Meyer

7a-1 Introduction 202

7a-2 Fluid Dynamic Modes: Flow Regimes

7a-3 Overview of Pipeline Device Options by Flow Regime

7a-4 Applications

7a-5 Blending and Radial Mixing in Pipeline Flow

7a-6 Tee Mixers

7a-7 Static or Motionless Mixing Equipment

7a-8 Static Mixer Design Fundamentals

7a-9 Multiphase Flow in Motionless Mixers and Pipes

7a-10 Transitional Flow

7a-11 Motionless Mixers: Other Considerations

7a-12 In-line Mechanical Mixers

7a-13 Other Process Results

7a-14 Summary and Future Developments




7b Update to Mixing in Pipelines 205
Thomas A. Simpson, Michael K. Dawson, and Arthur W. Etchells III

7b-1 Introduction 205

7b-2 Use of CFD with Static Mixers 206

7b-3 Recent Developments in Single-Phase Blending 207

7b-4 Recent Developments in Multiphase Dispersions 222

7b-5 Mixing with Static Mixers When Solids are Present 229

Notation 232

Roman Characters 232

Greek Characters 233

Subscripts 233

References 235

7c Introduction to Micromixers 239
Joelle Aubin and Abraham D. Stroock

7c-1 Introduction 239

7c-2 Mixing and Transport Phenomena 240

7c-3 Micromixer Geometries and Fluid Contacting Mechanisms 241

7c-4 Characterization of Flow and Mixing 244

7c-5 Multiphase Mixing 245

7c-6 Commercial Equipment and Industrial Examples 247

7c-7 Evaluation of the Current and Future Applicability of Microreactors in Industry 250

Notation 251

Suggested Reading 251

References 251

8 Rotor–Stator Mixing Devices 255
Victor Atiemo-Obeng and Richard V. Calabrese

8-1 Introduction 256

8-2 Geometry and Design Configurations

8-3 Hydrodynamics of Rotor–Stator Mixers

8-5 Mechanical Design Considerations

8-6 Rotor–Stator Mixing Equipment Suppliers



9a Blending of Miscible Liquids 259
Richard K. Grenville and Alvin W. Nienow

9a-1 Introduction 260

9a-2 Blending of Newtonian Fluids in the Turbulent and Transitional Regimes

9a-3 Blending of Non-Newtonian, Shear-Thinning Fluids in the Turbulent and Transitional Regimes

9a-4 Blending in the Laminar Regime

9a-5 Jet Mixing in Tanks



9b Laminar Mixing Processes in Stirred Vessels 261
Philippe A. Tanguy, Louis Fradette, Gabriel Ascanio, and Ryuichi Yatomi

9b-1 Introduction 261

9b-2 Laminar Mixing Background 263

9b-3 Rheologically Complex Fluids 266

9b-4 Heat Effects 268

9b-5 Laminar Mixing Equipment 269

9b-6 Key Design Parameters 274

9b-7 Power Number and Power Constant 276

9b-8 Experimental Techniques to Determine Blend Time 282

9b-9 Mixing Efficiency 285

9b-10 Characterization of the Mixing Flow Field 288

9b-11 Hydrodynamic Characterization of Laminar Blending 301

9b-12 Application of Chaos in Mixing 317

9b-13 Selecting an Appropriate Geometry for Generic Applications 328

9b-14 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Laminar Mixing 336

9b-15 Industrial Mixing Process Requirements 338

9b-16 Scale-up Rules in the Laminar Regime 340

9b-17 Mixer Troubleshooting and Engineering Calculations 342

9b-18 Concluding Remarks 347

Acknowledgments 348

References 348

10 Solid–Liquid Mixing 357
David A. R. Brown, Arthur W. Etchells III, with sections by Richard K. Grenville, Kevin J. Myers, N. Gul Ozcan-Taskin incorporating sections by Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng, Piero H. Armenante, and W. Roy Penney

10-1 Introduction and Scope 358

10-2 Solid and Liquid Physical Characteristics 364

10-3 Agitation of Sinking or Settling Solids 371

10-4 Incorporation and Dispersion of Floating Solids 416

10-5 Attrition and Particle Damage 425

10-6 Solids Suspension and Distribution Using Liquid Jets 430

10-7 Mass Transfer 431

10-8 Lab and Pilot-Scale Testing 440

Nomenclature 441

Dimensional Variables and Parameters 441

Dimensionless Parameters 442

Greek Symbols 443

References 443

11 Gas—Liquid Mixing in Turbulent Systems 451
John C. Middleton and John M. Smith

11-1 Introduction 452

11-2 Selection and Configuration of Gas–Liquid Equipment

11-3 Flow Patterns and Operating Regimes

11-4 Power

11-5 Gas Hold-up or Retained Gas Fraction

11-6 Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer

11-7 Bubble Size

11-8 Consequences of Scale-up



12 Immiscible Liquid–Liquid Systems 457
Douglas E. Leng and Richard V. Calabrese

12-1 Introduction 459

12-2 Liquid–Liquid Dispersion

12-3 Drop Coalescence

12-4 Population Balances

12-5 More Concentrated Systems

12-6 Other Considerations

12-7 Equipment Selection for Liquid–Liquid Operations

12-8 Scale-up of Liquid–Liquid Systems

12-9 Industrial Applications



13a Mixing and Chemical Reactions 465
Gary K. Patterson, Edward L. Paul, Suzanne M. Kresta, and Arthur W. Etchells III

13a-1 Introduction 466

13a-2 Principles of Reactor Design for Mixing-Sensitive Systems

13a-3 Mixing and Transport Effects in Heterogeneous Chemical Reactors

13a-4 Scale-up and Scale-down of Mixing-Sensitive Systems

13a-5 Simulation of Mixing and Chemical Reaction

13a-6 Conclusions



13b Scale-up Using the Bourne Protocol: Reactive Crystallization and Mixing Example 479
Aaron Sarafinas and Cheryl I. Teich

13b-1 Example: Redesigning an Uncontrolled Precipitation to a Reactive Crystallization 479

Goal 479

Issue 479

References 489

14a Heat Transfer 491
W. Roy Penney and Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng

14a-1 Introduction 492

14a-2 Fundamentals

14a-3 Most Cost-Effective Heat Transfer Geometry

14a-4 Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations

14a-5 Examples



14b Heat Transfer in Stirred Tanks—Update 493
Jose Roberto Nunhez

14b-1 Introduction 493

14b-2 Consideration of Heat Transfer Surfaces used in Mixing Systems 496

14b-3 Heating and Cooling of Liquids 506

14b-4 Summary of Proposed Equations Used in Heat Transfer for Stirred Tanks 512

14b-5 Methodology for Design of Heating Mixing System 518

14b-6 Example 518

Acknowledgments 529

Nomenclature 529

Greek Symbols 531

References 531

15 Solids Mixing

Part A: Fundamentals of Solids Mixing 533
Fernando J. Muzzio, Albert Alexander, Chris Goodridge, Elizabeth Shen, and Troy Shinbrot

15-1 Introduction

15-2 Characterization of Powder Mixtures

15-3 Theoretical Treatment of Granular Mixing

15-4 Batch Mixers and Mechanisms

15-6 Conclusions

Part B: Mixing of Particulate Solids in the Process Industries 533
Konanur Manjunath, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and Karl Jacob

15-7 Introduction

15-8 Mixture Characterization and Sampling

15-9 Selection of Batch and Continuous Mixers

15-10 Fundamentals and Mechanics of Mixer Operation

15-11 Continuous Mixing of Solids

15-12 Scale-up and Testing of Mixers



16 Mixing of Highly Viscous Fluids, Polymers, and Pastes 539
the late David B. Todd

16-1 Introduction 539

16-2 Viscous Mixing Fundamentals

16-3 Equipment for Viscous Mixing

16-4 Equipment Selection

16-5 Summary



17 Mixing in the Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Industries 541
Edward L. Paul (retired), Michael Midler, and Yongkui Sun

17-1 Introduction 542

17-2 General Considerations

17-3 Homogeneous Reactions

17-4 Heterogeneous Reactions

17-5 Mixing and Crystallization


18 Mixing in the Fermentation and Cell Culture Industries 543

Ashraf Amanullah and Barry C. Buckland, and Alvin W. Nienow

18-1 Introduction 544

18-2 Scale-up/Scale-down of Fermentation Processes

18-3 Polysaccharide Fermentations

18-4 Mycelial Fermentations

18-5 Escherichia coli Fermentations

18-6 Cell Culture

18-7 Plant Cell Cultures



19 Fluid Mixing Technology in the Petroleum Industry 547
Ramesh R. Hemrajani

19-1 Introduction 548

19-2 Shear-Thickening Fluid for Oil Drilling Wells

19-3 Gas Treating for CO2 Reduction

19-4 Homogenization of Water in Crude Oil Transfer Lines

19-5 Sludge Control in Crude Oil Storage Tanks

19-6 Desalting

19-7 Alkylation

19-8 Other Applications



20 Mixing in the Pulp and Paper Industry 551
the late Chad P.J. Bennington

20-1 Introduction 552

20-2 Selected Mixing Applications in Pulp and Paper Processes: Non fibrous Systems

20-3 Pulp Fiber Suspensions

20-4 Scales of Mixing in Pulp Suspensions

20-5 Macroscale Mixing/Pulp Blending Operations

20-6 Mixing in Pulp Bleaching Operations

20-7 Conclusions



21a Mechanical Design of Mixing Equipment 555
David S. Dickey and Julian B. Fasano

21-1 Introduction 556

21-2 Mechanical Features and Components of Mixers

21.3 Motors

21.4 Speed Reducers

21.5 Shaft Seals

21.6 Shaft Design

21.7 Impeller Features and Design

21.8 Tanks and Mixer Supports

21.9 Wetted Materials of Construction



21b Magnetic Drives for Mixers 559
David S. Dickey

22 Role of the Mixing Equipment Supplier 567
Ron Weetman

22-1 Introduction 568

22-2 Vendor Experience

22-3 Options

22-4 Testing

22-5 Mechanical Reliability

22-6 Service

22-7 Key Points


23 Commissioning Mixing Equipment 569
David S. Dickey, Eric Janz, Todd Hutchinson, Thomas Dziekonski, Richard O. Kehn, and Kayla Preston and Jay Dinnison

23-1 Introduction 569

23-2 Commissioning Concepts 570

23-3 Instructions for Commissioning 572

23-4 Safety Instructions 573

23-5 Receiving the Equipment 575

23-6 Kinds of Storage 578

23-7 Installation 582

23-8 Lubrication 590

23-9 Wiring 594

23-10 Initial Operation 595

23-11 Troubleshooting 597

23-12 Maintenance 597

23-13 Commissioning Shaft Seals 597

23-14 Mechanical Checkout, Startup, and Troubleshooting of Agitator Equipment 609

23-15 Summary 639

Nomenclature 639

Greek Symbols 640

References 640

24 Mixing Safety 641
Gord Winkel and David S. Dickey

24-1 Introduction 641

24-2 The Practice of Risk Management 642

24-3 Summary Comments on Mixing Safety 661

References 663

25 Mixing Issues in Crystallization and Precipitation Operations 665
Alvin W. Nienow and Edward L. Paul

25-1 Introduction 665

25-2 Basic Crystallization Concepts 667

25-3 Impact of Mixing on Primary Heterogeneous Nucleation 673

25-4 Impact of Mixing on Secondary Nucleation 678

25-5 Impact of Mixing on Crystal Growth and Dissolution Rates 684

25-6 Selecting Operating Conditions to Optimize Crystal Suspension and Withdrawal 687

25-7 Damkoehler Number for Nucleation and Subsurface Feeding of Reactants 695

25-8 Stirred Vessel Crystallizers 700

25-9 Other Types of Equipment 704

25-10 Precipitation 706

25-11 Agglomeration and Oiling Out 712

25-12 Conclusions 714

Nomenclature 716

Greek Symbols 717

Subscripts 718

References 718

Appendices 722

26 Mixing in the Water and Wastewater Industry 729
Michael K. Dawson

26-1 Introduction 729

26-2 Mixing in Drinking Water Treatment 735

26-3 Mixing in Wastewater Treatment 758

26-4 Mixing in Sludge Treatment 765

26-5 Conclusions 775

Nomenclature 775

Greek Symbols 776

References 777

27 Mixing in the Food Industry 783
P. J. Cullen, Wesley Twombly, Robin Kay Connelly, and David S. Dickey

27-1 Introduction 783

27-2 Building or Reducing Texture Through Mixing 784

27-3 Role of Mixing in Food Treatment 796

27-4 Food Homogeneity 802

27-5 Advances in the Science of Food Mixing 803

27-6 Other Food Mixers 803

27-7 Typical Food Groups 818

Nomenclature 823

Greek Symbols 823

References 823

28 Mixing and Processes Validation in the Pharmaceutical Industry 827
Otute Akiti and Piero M. Armenante

28-1 Introduction 827

28-2 Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 828

28-3 Pharmaceutical Processes and Role of Mixing in Pharmaceutical Production 836

28-4 Examples of Process Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 852

28-5 Example of Process Validation for API Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 API 852

28-6 Example of Process Validation for Drug Product Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 Drug Product 864

Verification 884

Acknowledgment 885

References 885

Index 891

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