Advances in Neurochemistry

Advances in Neurochemistry

by B. W. Agranoff, M. H. Aprison

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1977)

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The emergence of a new scientific book series requires some explanation regarding how it hopes to compensate the reader for the discomforts it undoubtedly produces both in the realms of informational input-overload and in the financial strain on personal and institutional budgets. This series recognizes that investigators who have entered neurochemistry from the biochemical tradition have a rather specialized view of the brain. Too often, interdisciplinary offerings are initially attractive but turn out to recite basic biochemical considerations. We have come to believe that there are now sufficiently large numbers of neurochemists to support a specialized venture such as the present one. We have begun with consideration of traditional areas of neurochemistry which show considerable scientific activity. We hope they will serve the neurochemist both for general reading and for specialized information. The reader will also have the opportunity to reftect on the unbridled speculation that results from the disinhibiting effects on the author who has been invited to write a chapter. We plan occasionally also to offer reviews of areas not completely in the domain of neurochemistry which we nevertheless feel to be sufficiently timely to be called to the attention of all who use chemical principles and tools in an effort to better understand the brain. B. W. Agranoff M. H. Aprison vii CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 POSSIBLE ROLES OF PROSTAGLANDINS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM LEONHARD S. WOLFE 1. Introduction 1 1. 1. Background 1 Names and Structures 1. 2. 4 1. 3. Biosynthesis 4 1. 4.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461582397
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 04/14/2013
Series: Cellular Organelles
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1977
Pages: 346
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Phenylketonuria: Biochemical Mechanisms.- 1. Introduction.- 2. History of the Disease and Its General Characteristics.- 3. Elucidation of the Metabolic Block in PKU.- 4. Identification of the Affected Component of the Phenylalanine Hydroxylase System in Classical PKU.- 5. The Nature of the Genetic Defect in Classical PKU.- 6. Variants of PKU.- 7. Heterozygotes for Hyperphenylalaninemia Due to Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency.- 8. Pathogenesis.- 9. Prospects for Alternate Therapy.- 10. References.- 2 Tryptophan in the Central Nervous System: Regulation and Significance.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Peripheral Metabolism of Tryptophan.- 3. Tryptophan Transport into Cerebral Tissues.- 3.1. Factors in Plasma Affecting Uptake of Tryptophan into the Brain.- 3.2. The Uptake System of the Brain.- 4. Cerebral Tryptophan.- 4.1. Protein Synthesis.- 4.2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 4.3. Metabolites of 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 4.4. Decarboxylation to Tryptamine.- 4.5. Transamination.- 4.6. Pyrrolase.- 4.7. Other Pathways.- 5. CSF Tryptophan.- 6. Tryptophan in Clinical States.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Sleep.- 6.3. Schizophrenia.- 6.4. Mental Depression.- 6.5. Electroconvulsive Therapy.- 6.6. Lithium Treatment.- 6.7. Hepatic Coma.- 6.8. Phenylketonuria and Hartnup Disease.- 7. References.- 3 Substance P and Sensory Transmitter.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Search for the Sensory Transmitter.- 3. The Motoneuron-Depolarizing Peptide in Dorsal Root.- 4. Distribution of Substance P in the Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root of the Cat.- 5. Isolated Spinal Cord of Newborn Rat.- 6. Lioresal.- 7. Evidence for Substance P and L-Glutamate as Sensory Transmitters.- 8. Peptides as Neurotransmitters.- 9. References.- 4 Biochemistry of Sleep.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Some Physiological Aspects of Sleep Relevant to Biochemical Changes.- 3. Changes in Cerebral Enzymes During Sleep.- 4. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Metabolic Energy of the Brain During Sleep.- 4.1. Glucose Catabolism and Labile Phosphates.- 4.2. Role of Brain Glycogen During Sleep.- 4.3. Effect of PS Deprivation on Glycolysis and Labile Phosphates in the Brain.- 5. Nucleic Acid Metabolism.- 6. Effects of Sleep on Cerebral Amino Acids and Proteins.- 6.1. Amino Acids.- 6.2. Amino Acid Metabolism.- 6.3. Proteins.- 7. Neurotransmitters.- 8. Humoral Factors and the Control of the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle.- 9. Conclusion.- 10. References.- 5 Sensory Response in Bacteria.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Description of the Bacterial Sensory System.- 1.2. Analogies to More Complex Systems.- 1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Bacterial System.- 1.4. Scope of the Review.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. The Capillary Assay.- 2.2. Trackers.- 2.3. Temporal Gradient Methods.- 2.4. Tumble Frequency Assay.- 2.5. Rotation Assay.- 2.6. The Population Migration Assay.- 2.7. Selection of Nonchemotactic Mutants.- 3. The Sensing Mechanism.- 3.1. Nature of the Sensing Mechanism.- 3.2. Nature of the Biased Random Walk.- 3.3. Quantitation of the Sensory Response.- 3.4. Additivity Between Different Types of Stimuli.- 3.5. Weber-Fechner Law.- 3.6. Speed of Response.- 3.7. Relationship of Artificial Gradients to Normal Bacterial Behavior.- 3.8. Useful Memory.- 4. The Receptors.- 4.1. Specificity.- 4.2. Metabolism and Transport.- 4.3. Purified Receptors.- 5. The Transmission System.- 5.1. Mutants.- 5.2. Methionine.- 5.3. Light Effect.- 5.4. ATP and Oxidative Phosphorylation.- 6. Motor Responses.- 6.1. Rotation.- 6.2. Tumbling.- 7. Conclusion and Summary.- 7.1. Nature of the Bacterial System.- 7.2. Relationship to More Complex Systems.- 7.3. Components of Higher Neural Processes.- 8. References.

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