At the Denver X-Ray Conference, the topic for the plenary lectures alternates annually between x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence. This year is a "diffraction" year, and the theme is accuracy in powder diffraction. Instead of comprehensive cover age, such as was attempted at the Accuracy in Powder Diffraction Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards in 1978, this meeting focuses on recent developments in measurement accuracy of two-theta and intensity. The focus on accuracy, from the practical point of view, is important in a wide range of x-ray diffraction measurements. Accu rate data improve our ability to identify phases in a mixture using the Powder Diffraction File. Improved accuracy is essential for better characterization of the lattice, crystallite size, strain and structure. Finally, the accuracy of quantitative analysis is of great concern in many laboratories. The five invited papers of the plenary session give a broad perspective of recent activity throughout the world on uses of more accurate data, on methods to achieve greater accuracy, and on fundamental factors affecting the accuracy. The scope of the conference, however, is much broader than that of the plenary session. The workshops lead off with many practical aspects of x-ray analysis. Many of the contributed papers expand on the theme of accuracy in x-ray powder diffraction. In particular, the s.ession on XRD quantitative phase analysis provides an exception al coverage of the limitations in quantitative analysis and of the techniques being employed to improve the results.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982|
|Product dimensions:||6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.04(d)|
Table of ContentsI. Accuracy in X-ray Powder Diffraction.- Accuracy in Angle and Intensity Measurements in X-Ray Powder Diffraction.- Precision Lattice Parameter Measurements with Guinier Camera and Counter Diffractometer: Comparison and Reconciliation of Results.- Effects of Diffractometer Alignment and Aberrations on Peak Positions and Intensities.- Accuracy and Precision of Intensities in X-Ray Polycrystalline Diffraction.- New Standard Reference Materials for X-Ray Powder Diffraction.- Precision and Reproducibility of Lattice Parameters from Guinier Powder Patterns: Follow-up and Assessment.- II. Search/Match Procedures, Powder Diffraction File.- POWDER-PATTERN: A System of Programs for Processing and Interpreting Powder Diffraction Data.- An Evaluation of Some Profile Models and the Optimization Procedures Used in Profile Fitting.- Computer-Aided Qualitative X-Ray Powder Diffraction Phase Analysis.- The JCPDS Data Base Present and Future.- Search/Match Implications of the Frequency Distribution of “d” Values in the JCPDS Powder Data File.- Computer Search/Match of Standards Containing a Small Number of Reflections.- Comparison of the Hanawalt and Johnson-Vand Computer Search/Match Strategies.- III. Quantitative XRD Analysis.- A Comparison of Methods for Reducing Preferred Orientation.- The Dramatic Effect of Crystallite Size on X-Ray Intensities.- X-Ray Diffraction Intensity of Oxide Solid Solutions: Application to Qualitative and Quantitative Phase Analysis.- Quantitative Analys is of Platelike Pigments by X-Ray Diffraction.- Preparation and Certification of Standard Reference Materials to be Used in the Determination of Retained Austenite in Steels.- Profile Fitting for Quantitative Analysis in X-Ray Powder Diffraction.- XRD Quantitative Phase Analysis Using the NBS*QUANT82 System.- SCRIP - Fortran IV Software for Quantitative XRD.- IV. XRD Applications and Automation.- An X-Ray Diffraction Study of CaNi5 Hydrides Using In Situ Hydriding and Profile Fitting Methods.- The Measurement of Thermally Induced Structural Changes by High Temperature (900°C) Guinier X-Ray Powder Diffraction Techniques.- The Use of X-Ray Diffraction and Infrared Spectroscopy to Characterize Hazardous Wastes.- Comparison of X-Ray Powder Diffraction Techniques.- The Use of Multi-Scan Diffraction in Phase Identification.- An Automated X-Ray Diffractometer for Detection and Identification of Minor Phases.- Time Share Computer Capability for Phase Identification by X-Ray Diffraction.- V. X-Ray Stress Determination, Position Sensitive Detectors, Fatigue and Fracture Characterization.- The Use of Mn-K? X-Rays and a New Model of PSPC in Stress Analysis of Stainless Steel.- Measurement of Stress Gradients by X-Ray Diffraction.- A Method for X-Ray Stress Analysis of Thermochemically Treated Materials.- Application of a Position Sensitive Scintillation Detector for Nondestructive Residual Stress Measurements Inside Stainless Steel Piping.- On the X-Ray Diffraction Method of Measurement of Triaxial Stresses with Particular Reference to the Angle 2?o.- Direct Determination of Stress in a Thin Film Deposited on a Single-Crystal Substrate from an X-Ray Topographic Image.- The Determination of Elastic Constants Using a Combination of X-Ray Stress Techniques.- One-Dimensional, Curved, Position-Sensitive Detector for X-Ray Diffractometry.- A Phi-Psi-Diffractometer for Residual Stress Measurements.- X-Ray Fractography on Fatigue Fractured Surface.- X-Ray Diffraction Observation of Fracture Surfaces of Ductile Cast Iron.- Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Flow and Fracture Mechanisms Induced by Indentation in Single Crystal MgO.- X-Ray Diffraction Study of Shape Memory in Uranium-Niobium Alloys.- VI. New XRF Instrumentation and Techniques.- X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Using Synchrotron Radiation..- Energy Resolution Measurements of Mercuric Iodide Detectors Using a Cooled FET Preamplifier.- X-Ray Polarization: Bragg Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence.- A New Technique for Radioisotope-Excited X-Ray Fluorescence.- Bragg-Borrmann X-Ray Spectroscopy from a Line Source 341.- VII. XRF Computer Systems and Mathematical Corrections.- Automated Qualitative X-Ray Fluorescence Elemental Analysis.- A New Method for Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Mixtures of Oxides or Other Compounds by Empirical Parameter Methods.- FPT: An Integrated Fundamental Parameters Program for Broadband EDXRF Analysis Without a Set of Similar Standards.- A Comparison of the XRF11 and EXACT Fundamental Parameters Programs When Using Filtered Direct and Secondary Target Excitation in EDXRF.- A Generalized Matrix Correction Approach for Energy- Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Paint Using Fundamental Parameters and Scattered Silver K? Peaks.- Multielement Analysis of Unweighed Biological and Geological Samples Using Backscatter and Fundamental Parameters.- A Correction Method for Absorption in the Analysis of Aerosols by EDX Spectrometry.- XRF Analysis by Combining the Standard Addition Method with Matrix-Correction Models.- Accurate Geochemical Analysis of Samples of Unknown Composition.- VIII. XRF General Applications.- XRF Analysis of Vegetation Samples and Its Application to Mineral Exploration.- Application of XRF to Measure Strontium in Human Bone In Vivo.- Determination of Boron Oxide in Glass by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.- Measurement of Composition and Thickness for Single Layer Coating with Energy Dispersive XRF Analysis.- Determination of Light Elements on the Chem-X Multichannel Spectrometer.- Simultaneous Determination of 36 Elements by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a Prospecting Tool.- Elemental Analysis of Geological Samples Using a Multichannel, Simultaneous X-Ray Spectrometer.- Chemical Analysis of Coal by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Utilizing Artificial Standards.- Author Index.