After Yorktown: The Final Struggle for American Independence

After Yorktown: The Final Struggle for American Independence

by Don Glickstein


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After Yorktown: The Final Struggle for American Independence by Don Glickstein

After the Humiliating Defeat at Yorktown in 1781, George III Vowed to Keep Fighting the Rebels and Their Allies Around the World, Holding a New Nation in the Balance

Although most people think the American Revolution ended with the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19, 1781, it did not. The war spread around the world, and exhausted men kept fighting—from the Arctic to Arkansas, from India and Ceylon to Schenectady and South America—while others labored to achieve a final diplomatic resolution.

After Cornwallis’s unexpected loss, George III vowed revenge, while Washington planned his next campaign. Spain, which France had lured into the war, insisted there would be no peace without seizing British-held Gibraltar. Yet the war had spun out of control long before Yorktown. Native Americans and Loyalists continued joint operations against land-hungry rebel settlers from New York to the Mississippi Valley. African American slaves sought freedom with the British. Soon, Britain seized the initiative again with a decisive naval victory in the Caribbean against the Comte de Grasse, the French hero of Yorktown.

In After Yorktown: The Final Struggle for American Independence, Don Glickstein tells the engrossing story of this uncertain and violent time, from the remarkable American and French success in Virginia to the conclusion of the fighting—in India—and then to the last British soldiers leaving America more than two years after Yorktown. Readers will learn about the people—their humor, frustration, fatigue, incredulity, worries; their shock at the savage terrorism each side inflicted; and their surprise at unexpected grace and generosity. Based on an extraordinary range of primary sources, the story encompasses a fascinating cast of characters: a French captain who destroyed a British trading post, but left supplies for Indians to help them through a harsh winter, an American Loyalist releasing a captured Spanish woman in hopes that his act of kindness will result in a prisoner exchange, a Native American leader caught “between two hells” of a fickle ally and a greedy enemy, and the only general to surrender to both George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte. Finally, the author asks the question we face today: How do you end a war that doesn’t want to end?

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781594162619
Publisher: Westholme Publishing
Publication date: 09/01/2016
Edition description: 1
Pages: 466
Sales rank: 778,459
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

DON GLICKSTEIN, an award-winning journalist, has written for the Delaware State News, the Buffalo Courier-Express, New Bedford Standard-Times, and Seattle Post-Intelligencer, before being appointed a political press secretary. He later became a communications manager for the nation’s largest consumer-governed healthcare system. His history writing has appeared in the Journal of the American Revolution, Columbia, Washington Magazine, and

Table of Contents

Reference Maps x

Introduction: How to End a War xv

Part 1 Surrender

1 The Treaty 3

2 O'Hara's Wars 6

3 Rochambeau and Washington 16

Part 2 The South

4 Rice and the Low Country 29

5 General Leslie Comes to Charlestown 32

6 The Deputy Savior 38

7 The "Bloodiest, Cruel War" 43

8 North Carolina; Two Combustible Commanders 50

9 Georgia: "Making Bricks Without Straw" 60

10 Leslie's Work 74

11 "Howlings of a Triple-Headed Monster" 80

12 The Swamp Fox Meets His Match 88

13 "Bloody Bill" Cunningham Raids the Backcountry 99

14 Laurens and His Glory 104

15 At Last, the Evacuation 113

Part 3 The Frontier

16 Indians 127

17 The Death of Colonel Butler 137

18 Massacre and Revenge 149

19 Ambush at Blue Licks 166

20 Final Fights on the Ohio 173

21 Sevier Hunts for Dragging Canoe 182

22 Arkansas Post and the Spanish Frontier 189

23 Between Two Hells 204

Part 4 The Caribbean

24 Riches 213

25 The Golden Rock 221

26 More British Humiliations 229

27 Battle of the Saintes 238

28 Flip-flops in Central America 245

29 A Future Hero 249

Part 5 The Sea and the Raiders

30 Britannia Doesn't Rule the Waves 259

31 French Disaster, British Tragedy 264

32 Secret Mission to the Arctic 268

33 Coastal War: Halifax to Boston 273

34 Coastal War: Delaware to Chesapeake 278

Part 6 The Mediterranean

35 "Calamity Has Come On Us" 291

36 The Great Siege of Gibraltar 296

Part 7 The Battle for India

37 Hyder Ali: The "Most Formidable Enemy" 311

38 Coote and Hughes to the Rescue 318

39 Suffren's "Lust for Action" 323

40 The Final Battles 328

Part 8 Washington and Carleton

41 New Leader, Old Leader 343

42 Refugees and the Book of Negroes 351

43 Evacuation Day 359

Notes 363

Bibliography and Acknowledgments 403

Index 421

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