Pub. Date:
Springer New York
Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects / Edition 1

Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects / Edition 1

by Valerie J. Karplus, Xing Wang Deng


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387711386
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 12/17/2007
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 165
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

About the Author

Valerie J. Karplus graduated from Yale University in 2002 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry and Political Science. She lived in China for two years, where she researched the development and impact of agricultural biotechnology in China while based at the China Agricultural University (2002-2003) and National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing (2005-2006). Currently she ispursuing graduate study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dr. Xing Wang Deng is the Daniel C. Eaton Professor of Plant Biology at Yale University. His scientific work focuses on the molecular and genomic basis for plant development and agricultural biotechnology. He also serves asthe co-director of the National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing and the founding director of the Peking-Yale Joint Research Center of Plant Molecular Genetics and Agro-biotechnology. He has led a research team that has published well over a hundred peer-reviewed articles in his area of research.

Table of Contents

List of Figures     xix
List of Acronyms     xxiii
Introduction     1
From Seeds to Empires: China's Long Agricultural History     5
Geography     5
Earliest Roots: The Origins of Agriculture in China     6
Rural Life in Early Imperial China: Xia, Shang, and Western Zhou Dynasties     7
Benefits of Water Control, the Iron Plough, and Fertilizer     8
Advances in Breeding and Agricultural Science: Jin through Song Dynasties     12
New World Crops and Trade: Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties     13
Agriculture and the Environment Prior to 1900     14
Seeds of Change: Fall of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China, and World War II     15
Modern Science on the Farm: The Green Revolution     17
Scientific Foundations     18
From Darwin's Islands to Mendel's Garden     18
Breeding for Higher Yields     19
Global Diffusion of Green Revolution Varieties     22
Greater Outputs, Greater Inputs     23
Successes of the Green Revolution     24
Shortcomings and Remaining Challenges     25
Transformation in China's Agriculture in the Twentieth Century     27
Collectivization and Industrialization: 1950-1961     27
The Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution: 1959-1976     29
Signs of Change: 1978 to the Present     31
Agricultural Science and Technology     33
China's Agricultural Research System     33
High-Yielding Varieties     35
Fertilizer     41
Irrigation     42
Pesticides and Weather Protection     42
Challenges Ahead     42
Agricultural Biotechnology: New Tools for Ancient Practices     45
The Molecular Basis of Life     45
The Tools and Techniques of Agricultural Biotechnology     48
DNA Sequencing and Genomics     49
Whole Plants from Single Cells: Tissue Culture     50
Transgenic Technology     51
Applying Agricultural Biotechnology in Crop Design     53
Biosafety Concerns     53
Global Diffusion of Agricultural Biotechnology     54
Agricultural Biotechnology Takes Root in China     55
Origins of Modern Plant Biology in China     56
Science and Technology in the Pre-Reform Period: 1949-1978     56
China's Agricultural Biotechnology Investment     57
Administration of Research Agendas     59
China's First Transgenic Crops      62
Non-transgenic Applications of Biotechnology     73
Role of International Institutions     75
Unique Features of Agricultural Biotechnology in China     75
From Lab to Field: A Changing Seed Delivery System     79
Seed Distribution in the Pre-Reform Years: 1949-1978     79
Impact of Reforms     80
Seed Development and Distribution Today     81
Challenges and Concerns     83
Collisions of State and Local Interests     83
A Weakly Coordinated System     84
The Multiple Roles of Research Institutes     84
Intellectual Property Protection     85
Dissemination of Transgenic Crops in China     86
The Case of Bt Cotton     87
Implications for Agricultural Biotechnology     90
China's First Transgenic Crops: Farm Level Impact     93
Challenges to Cotton Farmers     94
Biotechnology for Smallholders: The Case of Bt Cotton     96
Bt Cotton and the Environment     99
Transgenic Rice: Prospects for Commercialization     101
Estimating Potential Impact     102
Challenges to Adoption of Transgenic Rice     102
Potential Farm-Level Impact: Other Crops     103
Biosafety and China's Regulatory Policy     105
Global Context for Biotechnology Regulation     106
Divergent Attitudes on Transgenic Crops     107
Transatlantic Differences in Regulatory Approaches     109
Global Adoption of Transgenic Crops     110
China's Evolving Biosafety Regulatory Framework     111
Trade and Border Control     115
What's Behind China's Regulatory Decisions?     117
Biosafety and Commercial Concerns     118
Consumer Attitudes in China     118
Maintaining China's Overseas Markets     120
Evaluating Biosafety Regulation in China     120
Looking to the Future: Trends in Research and Rural Development Agendas     123
China's Science and Technology Renaissance     123
The Evolving Rationale for Biotechnology Support     124
Revitalizing Research: Reform and Experimentation     125
Upgrading the Educational System     126
Trends in China's Life Sciences and Biotechnology Research     128
Rural Policy and Agricultural Biotechnology     129
China's Science and Development Policy: Implications for Agricultural Biotechnology     132
Conclusion     135
The Role of History     135
Lessons from the Laboratory     136
Lessons from the Field     137
China and the Future of Agricultural Biotechnology     139
References     143
About the Authors     155
Index     157

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