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McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Aims of Argument : A Brief Guide / Edition 4

Aims of Argument : A Brief Guide / Edition 4


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780072863437
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 09/28/2002
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Note to Studentsxiii
1.An Overview of Key Terms3
What Is Argument?3
How Should We Approach Argument?3
What Are the Aims of Argument?4
Arguing to Inquire5
Arguing to Convince6
Arguing to Persuade7
Arguing to Negotiate8
Comparing the Aims: A Summary8
What Is Rhetoric?9
2.Reading an Argument11
Before You Read11
Recalling Prior Knowledge11
Considering the Rhetorical Context12
As You Read13
The First Reading13
"Making the Mosaic"14
The Second Reading15
Analyzing Structure15
Working through Difficult Passages17
Reading Arguments Critically20
The Third Reading20
After You Read22
3.Analyzing an Argument: A Simplified Toulmin Method23
A Preliminary Critical Reading23
"Rising to the Occasion of Our Death"24
A Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Toulmin Method26
Analyzing the Claim26
Identify the Claim26
Look for Qualifiers26
Find the Exceptions27
Summarize the Claim27
Analyzing the Reasons27
List the Reasons27
Examine the Reasons28
Analyzing the Evidence30
List the Evidence30
Examine the Evidence30
Noting Refutations30
Summarizing Your Analysis31
Student Sample: An Argument for Analysis31
"Capital Punishment: Society's Self-Defense"31
From Analysis to Inquiry36
4.Preparing to Write: Arguing to Inquire37
The Importance of Inquiry38
Questions for Inquiry39
Inquiry and Written Arguments: The Process of Dialogue41
A Preliminary Critical Reading41
"The Case for Torture"41
A Sample Dialogue43
Evaluating an Argument: An Analysis Based on Inquiry48
Preparing to Write48
From Dialogue to Draft48
A Sample Analysis49
"Michael Levin's 'The Case for Torture': A Dangerous Oversimplification"49
"City Shouldn't Ignore Morality"51
Student Sample: An Analysis Based on Inquiry53
"An Appeal to Prejudice"53
Inquiring into a Range of Positions54
The Exploratory Essay56
Three Opposing Positions56
"Rising to the Occasion of Our Death"57
"In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia"59
"Euthanasia Is Not the Answer"61
A Sample Exploratory Essay64
"Exploring the Issue of Voluntary Euthanasia"65
Using Inquiry by Peers in Writing an Argument66
5.Making Your Case: Arguing to Convince69
The Nature of Convincing: Structure and Strategy70
Case Structure70
Case Strategy70
Thinking about Audience71
Formulating the Thesis72
Choosing Reasons72
"The Case against Drug Testing"72
Arranging Reasons76
Using Evidence77
Introducing and Concluding the Argument77
The Process of Convincing78
Preparing a Brief79
Working toward a Position79
Analyzing the Audience81
Developing a Thesis83
Analyzing the Thesis84
Finding Reasons85
Selecting and Ordering Reasons90
Using Evidence92
From Brief to Draft95
The Introduction95
The Body: Presenting Reasons and Evidence97
The Conclusion99
Revising the Draft100
Reading Your Own Writing Critically101
Getting Feedback from Other Readers102
Editing and Proofreading102
Student Sample: An Essay to Convince102
"Who Should Have the Right to Marry?"102
Reader's Checklist for Revision103
6.Appealing to the Whole Person: Arguing to Persuade107
A Matter of Emphasis: When to Convince and When to Persuade107
Analyzing Your Readers108
Who Is the Audience, and How Do They View the Topic?108
What Are Our Differences?109
What Do We Have in Common?110
Reading a Persuasive Essay110
The Basic Message112
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"113
King's Analysis of His Audience: Identification and Overcoming Difference125
Hierarchy of Values126
Ends and Means126
Implications or Consequences126
Using the Forms of Appeal126
The Appeal to Reason127
The Appeal to Character128
The Appeal to Emotion129
The Appeal through Style133
Drafting a Persuasive Essay134
Conceiving a Readership135
Discovering the Resources of Appeal136
Appealing through Reason136
Appealing through Character137
Appealing to Emotion139
Appealing through Style140
Reader's Checklist for Revising a Persuasive Essay142
Student Sample: An Essay to Persuade142
"An Uncomfortable Position"143
7.Negotiation and Mediation: Resolving Conflict146
Negotiation and the Other Aims of Argument147
The Process of Negotiation and Mediation148
Understanding the Spirit of Negotiation148
Understanding the Opposing Positions148
"Living with Roe v. Wade"149
"Putting Women Back into the Abortion Debate"157
Locating the Areas of Disagreement164
Differences over Facts164
Differences in Interests165
Questions about Difference166
Defining the Problem in Terms of the Real Interests169
Inventing Creative Options170
Gathering More Data170
Reaching a Solution Based on Agreed-upon Principles171
The Mediatory Essay171
"How to End the Abortion War"172
Analyzing a Mediatory Essay180
Understanding the Spirit of Negotiation180
Understanding the Opposing Positions181
Locating Areas of Disagreement over Facts181
Locating Areas of Disagreement in Interests182
Defining the Problem in Terms of the Real Interests183
Inventing Creative Options183
Gathering More Data184
Reaching a Solution Based on Agreed-upon Principles184
Writing a Mediatory Essay186
Student Sample: A Mediatory Essay188
"Mediating the Speech Code Controversy"188
8.Image and Argument: Visual Rhetoric191
Understanding Visual Rhetoric192
Analysis: Common Types of Visual Rhetoric193
"Reading" Images193
Editorial Cartoons198
Public Sculpture201
News Photographs204
"Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"208
Analyzing Barkley's Graphics218
Writing Assignments221
Assignment 1Analyzing an Advertisement or Editorial Cartoon221
Student Sample: Analysis of Visual Rhetoric221
"A Mother's Treat"221
Assignment 2Using Visual Rhetoric as Promotion for Your School223
Assignment 3Analyzing Your Own Visual Rhetoric224
Reader's Checklist for Using Graphics225
Assignment 4Writing to Convince225
Assignment 5Using Graphics to Supplement Your Own Writing or Other Texts225
9.Researching Arguments227
Finding an Issue228
Understand That an Issue Is More Than Merely a Topic228
Keep Abreast of Current Events228
Research the News228
Research Your Library's Periodicals Indexes229
Inquire into the Issue229
Finding Sources230
Field Research230
Questionnaires and Surveys230
Library and Online Research232
Library of Congress Subject Headings232
The Card or Computerized Catalog233
Indexes to Periodicals233
Reference Books237
Internet Research237
The World Wide Web238
Listservs and Usenet Newsgroups239
Evaluating Sources240
Eliminate Inappropriate Sources240
Carefully Record Complete Bibliographic Information241
Read the Source Critically242
Who Is the Writer and What Is His or Her Bias?242
How Reliable Is the Source?242
When Was This Source Written?243
Where Did This Source Appear?243
Why Was the Book or Article Written?243
What Is the Author's Aim?243
How Is the Source Organized?243
Inquire into the Source244
Consider How You Might Use the Source244
Suggestions for Evaluating Sources244
Using Sources245
Taking Notes245
Suggestions for Taking Notes246
Suggestions for Paraphrasing246
Suggestions for Summarizing249
from The End of Life250
Summary of Excerpt from The End of Life254
Creating an Annotated Bibliography255
Sample Annotated Bibliography Entry255
Incorporating and Documenting Source Material in the Text of Your Argument256
Different Styles of Documentation256
Guidelines for Using MLA and APA Style257
MLA Style257
APA Style258
Direct Quotations258
MLA Style258
APA Style259
Altering Direct Quotations with Ellipses and Brackets259
Using Block Quotations259
Indirect Quotations260
MLA Style261
APA Style261
In-Text References to Electronic Sources261
Creating a Works-Cited or Reference List261
Book by One Author262
Two or More Works by the Same Author262
Book by Two or Three Authors263
Book by Four or More Authors263
Book Prepared by an Editor or Editors263
Work in an Edited Collection264
Translated Book264
Article in a Journal with Continuous Pagination264
Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue265
Article in a Magazine265
Anonymous Article in a Newspaper265
Editorial in a Newspaper265
Nonprint Sources266
Sound Recording266
Electronic Sources266
MLA Style: Citing Internet Sources266
APA Style: Citing Internet Sources267
An Online Book267
World Wide Web Site267
Article in an Electronic Journal268
Encyclopedia Article on CD-ROM

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