This book gives an account of a method of determining the type composition of sandy deposits from the air by the nature of their reflection of radiant energy. The measured spectral luminance of a rock outcrop rela ti ve to the luminance of a standard is the basic property considered in this method. The spectral luminance factors p\ are measured by means of special instruments - a universal photometer, cinespectrograph, spectro visors, and other spectrometers. The measured values of P" of the investigated rocks are interpreted geologically with the aid of some methods of mathematical statistics so that a means of lithological mapping of sandy deposits from the air can be found. The importance of developing a method of determining the type composition of rocks, primarily sandy de posits, from the air stems from the extensive occurrence of deserts on the earth's surface. Sandy deserts occupy vast areas in the southern latitudes of the USSR and occur in western and central China, Pakistan, Iran, India, and other states. In these deserts there are numerous deposits of petroleum and gas, and a search for water is continuously in progress. Successful prospecting for the above minerals depends on a determination of the material composition of the sandy deposits in these deserts and the solution of several questions of recent tec tonics, paleogeography, and quaternary geology, the answers to which might also be given by a study of the dis tribution of lithological types of sands.
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Table of ContentsI. Color and Spectral Luminance of Rock.- II. Basic Photometric Concepts.- Reflection and Indicatrices of Diffusion.- Albedo, Luminance, Spectral Luminance.- Spectral Luminance Curves and Their Evaluation.- Experimental Measurements of Spectral Luminance Factors of Rock Samples.- Effect of Natural Illumination on Values of ?? of Rock.- Effect of Nature of Photometered Surface on Values of ??.- III. Methods of Measuring Spectral Luminance Factors of Rocks.- Laboratory Instruments for Measuring the Reflecting Properties of Natural Objects.- The Indicatometer of the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University.- The FM-2 Universal Photometer.- Field Spectrometers.- The RShch-1 Aerial Cinespectrograph.- Spectrometers Employing Photoelectric Registration of the Spectrum.- The 1959 Model Spectrovisor Constructed by a Group of Workers in the Laboratory of Aeromethods.- The Field Photoelectric Spectrometer.- IV. Conditions of Spectrophotometry of Geological Objects. Processing of Spectrograms and Oscillograms.- Height of Flight during Spectrophotometry of Geological Objects.- Light Conditions and Choice of Time of Photometry.- Choice of Films for Registration of Spectra and Oscillograms.- Processing of Exposed Films.- Measurement of Spectrograms and Oscillograms. Plotting of Spectral Luminance Curves of Investigated Objects.- Measurement of Spectrograms and Plotting of ?? Curves.- Measurement of Oscillograms and Plotting of ?? Curves.- V. Evaluation of Spectral Luminance Curves and Methods of Geological Interpretation of Photometric Parameters.- Quantitative Evaluation of Spectral Luminance Curves.- Quantitative Evaluation of ?? Curves by Smoothing with Chebyshev Polynomials.- Evaluation of Photometric Parameters by Plotting Distributions of Observed ??.- Method of Calculating Contingency by the X2 Criterion.- Investigation of Association Between Spectral Luminance of Rock and Its Petrographie-Mineralogical Composition (Linear Correlation Analysis).- VI. Correlation of Spectral Luminance with Lithofacies Characteristics of Deposits.- Middle Jurassic Deposits of West Turkmenia.- Middle Jurassic Deposits of Bol’shoi Balkhan.- Middle Jurassic Deposits in Aman-Bulak Section (Tuarkyr Anticline).- Results of Photometry of Samples from Middle Jurassic Sections.- Correlation Between Spectral Luminance of Rock and Its Composition.- Terrigenous Cretaceous Deposits of West Turkmenia.- Petrographic-Mineralogical Characterization of Terrigenous Cretaceous Deposits from the Tuar and Malyi Balkhan Sections.- Tertiary Deposits of West Turkmenia.- Syrtlanli Section.- Sections of Red Beds in Belek and Kara-Tengir Regions of Krasnovodsk Peninsula.- VII. An Aeropetrographic Survey of Modern Sand Deposits.- Sands of the Sulak Type.- Sands of the Terek Type.- Sands of the Volga Type.- Photometric Properties of Sands of Northwest Caspian Region.- Summary.- Literature Cited.- Appendices.