ISBN-10:
1118806778
ISBN-13:
9781118806777
Pub. Date:
06/09/2014
Publisher:
Wiley
Aircraft Propulsion / Edition 2

Aircraft Propulsion / Edition 2

by Saeed Farokhi

Hardcover

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Overview

Aircraft Propulsion / Edition 2

New edition of the successful textbook updated to include new material on UAVs, design guidelines in aircraft engine component systems and additional end of chapter problems

Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition follows the successful first edition textbook with comprehensive treatment of the subjects in airbreathing propulsion, from the basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components and system integration.

This new edition has been extensively updated to include a number of new and important topics. A chapter is now included on General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Propulsion Systems that includes a discussion on electric and hybrid propulsion. Propeller theory is added to the presentation of turboprop engines. A new section in cycle analysis treats Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) and Geared Turbofan engines. New material on drop-in biofuels and design for sustainability is added to refl ect the FAA’s 2025 Vision.

In addition, the design guidelines in aircraft engine components are expanded to make the book user friendly for engine designers. Extensive review material and derivations are included to help the reader navigate through the subject with ease.

Key features:

  • General Aviation and UAV Propulsion Systems are presented in a new chapter
  • Discusses Ultra-High Bypass and Geared Turbofan engines
  • Presents alternative drop-in jet fuels
  • Expands on engine components' design guidelines
  • The end-of-chapter problem sets have been increased by nearly 50% and solutions are available on a companion website
  • Presents a new section on engine performance testing and instrumentation
  • Includes a new 10-Minute Quiz appendix (with 45 quizzes) that can be used as a continuous assessment and improvement tool in teaching/learning propulsion principles and concepts
  • Includes a new appendix on Rules of Thumb and Trends in aircraft propulsion

Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for graduate and undergraduate students, and is also an excellent source of information for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace and power industry.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118806777
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 06/09/2014
Pages: 1043
Sales rank: 402,734
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.80(h) x 2.20(d)

About the Author

Saeed Farokhi, The University of Kansas, USA

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xvii

Preface xix

Nomenclature xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 History of the Airbreathing Jet Engine, a Twentieth-CenturyInvention—The Beginning 1

1.2 Innovations in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines 4

1.3 New Engine Concepts 10

1.4 New Vehicles 16

1.5 Summary 16

1.6 Roadmap for the Second Edition 18

References 19

Problems 20

2 Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat: A Review21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 A Brief Review of Thermodynamics 22

2.3 Isentropic Process and Isentropic Flow 27

2.4 Conservation Principles for Systems and Control Volumes28

2.5 Speed of Sound & Mach Number 35

2.6 Stagnation State 38

2.7 Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow 41

2.8 Area–Mach Number Relationship 44

2.9 Sonic Throat 45

2.10 Waves in Supersonic Flow 49

2.11 Normal Shocks 50

2.12 Oblique Shocks 54

2.13 Conical Shocks 60

2.14 Expansion Waves 63

2.15 Frictionless, Constant-Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer67

2.16 Adiabatic Flow of a Calorically Perfect Gas in aConstant-Area Duct with Friction 77

2.17 Friction (Drag) Coefficient Cf and D’Arcy FrictionFactor fD 91

2.18 Dimensionless Parameters 91

2.19 Fluid Impulse 95

2.20 Summary of Fluid Impulse 102

References 103

Problems 103

3 Engine Thrust and Performance Parameters 113

3.1 Introduction 113

3.2 Installed Thrust—Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust andDrag 119

3.3 Engine Thrust Based on the Sum of Component Impulse 124

3.4 Rocket Thrust 128

3.5 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters 129

3.6 Modern Engines, Their Architecture and Some PerformanceCharacteristics 140

3.7 Summary 143

References 144

Problems 144

4 Gas Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis 151

4.1 Introduction 151

4.2 The Gas Generator 151

4.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines 152

4.4 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with anAfterburner 225

4.5 The Turboprop Engine 241

4.6 Summary 260

References 261

Problems 261

5 General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle PropulsionSystem 283

5.1 Introduction 283

5.2 Cycle Analysis 284

5.3 Power and Efficiency 293

5.4 Engine Components and Classifications 295

5.5 Scaling of Aircraft Reciprocating Engines 300

5.6 Aircraft Engine Systems 308

5.7 Electric Engines 314

5.8 Propellers and Reduction Gears 319

References 322

Problems 324

6 Aircraft Engine Inlets and Nozzles 327

6.1 Introduction 327

6.2 The Flight Mach Number and Its Impact on Inlet Duct Geometry328

6.3 Diffusers 329

6.4 An Ideal Diffuser 330

6.5 Real Diffusers and Their Stall Characteristics 331

6.6 Subsonic Diffuser Performance 333

6.7 Subsonic Cruise Inlet 338

6.8 Transition Ducts 348

6.9 An Interim Summary for Subsonic Inlets 349

6.10 Supersonic Inlets 350

6.11 Normal Shock Inlets 359

6.12 External Compression Inlets 362

6.13 Variable Geometry—External Compression Inlets 368

6.14 Mixed-Compression Inlets 368

6.15 Supersonic Inlet Types and Their Performance—A Review370

6.16 Standards for Supersonic Inlet Recovery 371

6.17 Exhaust Nozzle 373

6.18 Gross Thrust 373

6.19 Nozzle Adiabatic Efficiency 373

6.20 Nozzle Total Pressure Ratio 374

6.21 Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR) and Critical Nozzle PressureRatio (NPRcrit.) 374

6.22 Relation Between Nozzle Figures of Merit, n and n 376

6.23 A Convergent Nozzle or a De Laval? 376

6.24 The Effect of Boundary Layer Formation on Nozzle InternalPerformance 379

6.25 Nozzle Exit Flow Velocity Coefficient 379

6.26 Effect of Flow Angularity on Gross Thrust 381

6.27 Nozzle Gross Thrust Coefficient Cfg 385

6.28 Overexpanded Nozzle Flow—Shock Losses 386

6.29 Nozzle Area Scheduling, A8 and A9/A8 389

6.30 Nozzle Exit Area Scheduling, A9/A8 391

6.31 Nozzle Cooling 394

6.32 Thrust Reverser and Thrust Vectoring 396

6.33 Hypersonic Nozzle 401

6.34 Exhaust Mixer and Gross Thrust Gain in a Mixed-FlowTurbofan Engine 404

6.35 Noise 406

6.36 Nozzle-Turbine (Structural) Integration 409

6.37 Summary of Exhaust Systems 410

References 411

Problems 413

7 Combustion Chambers and Afterburners 429

7.1 Introduction 429

7.2 Laws Governing Mixture of Gases 431

7.3 Chemical Reaction and Flame Temperature 434

7.4 Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Composition 445

7.5 Chemical Kinetics 459

7.6 Combustion Chamber 473

7.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants 498

7.8 Aviation Fuels 509

7.9 Alternative “Drop-In” Jet Fuels (AJFs) 513

7.10 Combustion Instability: Screech and Rumble 515

7.11 Summary 516

References 516

Problems 518

8 Axial Compressor Aerodynamics 525

8.1 Introduction 525

8.2 The Geometry 525

8.3 Rotor and Stator Frames of Reference 526

8.4 The Euler Turbine Equation 529

8.5 Axial-Flow Versus Radial-Flow Machines 530

8.6 Axial-Flow Compressors and Fans 532

8.7 Compressor Performance Map 593

8.8 Compressor Instability – Stall and Surge 595

8.9 Multistage Compressors and Their Operating Line 599

8.10 Multistage Compressor Stalling Pressure Rise and StallMargin 604

8.11 Multistage Compressor Starting Problem 612

8.12 The Effect of Inlet Flow Condition on CompressorPerformance 615

8.13 Isometric and Cutaway Views of Axial-Flow CompressorHardware 620

8.14 Compressor Design Parameters and Principles 620

8.15 Summary 636

References 638

Problems 640

9 Centrifugal Compressor Aerodynamics 651

9.1 Introduction 651

9.2 Centrifugal Compressors 652

9.3 Radial Diffuser 666

9.4 Inducer 670

9.5 Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) and Inducer-Less Impellers 673

9.6 Impeller Exit Flow and Blockage Effects 673

9.7 Efficiency and Performance 674

9.8 Summary 677

References 678

Problems 678

10 Aerothermo-dynamics of Gas Turbines 685

10.1 Introduction 685

10.2 Axial-Flow Turbines 685

10.3 Turbine Performance Map 733

10.4 The Effect of Cooling on Turbine Efficiency 734

10.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design 735

10.6 Stresses in Turbine Blades and Disks and Useful LifeEstimation 743

10.7 Axial-Flow Turbine Design and Practices 746

10.8 Gas Turbine Design Summary 754

10.9 Summary 755

References 757

Problems 759

11 Aircraft Engine Component Matching and Off-Design Analysis767

11.1 Introduction 767

11.2 Engine (Steady-State) Component Matching 768

11.3 Engine Off-Design Analysis 785

11.4 Unchocked Nozzles and Other Off-Design Iteration Strategies798

11.5 Principles of Engine Performance Testing 802

11.6 Summary 810

References 812

Problems 813

12 Chemical Rocket and Hypersonic Propulsion 821

12.1 Introduction 821

12.2 From Takeoff to Earth Orbit 823

12.3 Chemical Rockets 824

12.4 Chemical Rocket Applications 826

12.5 New Parameters in Rocket Propulsion 827

12.6 Thrust Coefficient, CF 830

12.7 Characteristic Velocity, c* 833

12.8 Flight Performance 835

12.9 Multistage Rockets 845

12.10 Propulsive and Overall Efficiencies 847

12.11 Chemical Rocket Combustion Chamber 849

12.12 Thrust Chamber Cooling 862

12.13 Combustor Volume and Shape 869

12.14 Rocket Nozzles 870

12.15 High-Speed Airbreathing Engines 884

12.16 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion 895

12.17 Summary 897

References 898

Problems 899

Appendices 903

A. U.S. Standard Atmosphere 905

B. Isentropic Table 909

C. Normal Shock Table 927

D. Rayleigh Flow 941

E. Fanno Flow 951

F. Prandtl–Meyer Function and Mach Angle 961

G. Oblique Shock Charts 965

H. Conical Shock Charts 971

I. Cascade Data 975

J. Web Sites 981

K. 10-Minute Quizzes 983

L. Some “Rules of Thumb” and Trends in AircraftPropulsion 1001

Index

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