American Battles & Campaigns: A Chronicle from 1622-2010

American Battles & Campaigns: A Chronicle from 1622-2010

by Chris McNab

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Overview

American Battles & Campaigns: A Chronicle from 1622-2010 by Chris McNab

Raids and sieges; trench warfare and air campaigns; guerrilla warfare, naval engagements, and colonial wars—American Battles & Campaigns covers every major campaign and battle fought in North America or by United States’ forces overseas, from the Pequot War of 1634 to the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Arranged chronologically, American Battles & Campaigns: A Chronicle, from 1622-Present includes hundreds of entries, ranging from the 1770 Boston Massacre through the Alamo (1836) and the Philippine-American War (1899–1902), to Chateau-Thierry (1918), Midway (1942) and Hue (1969). Major battles, such as Yorktown, Gettysburg, Pearl Harbor, and D-Day, are illustrated with full-color annotated 3-dimensional maps and detailed text explaining the course of the engagement. Stuffed with black and white and color photographs, battle maps, paintings and other artwork, American Battles & Campaigns contains expert accounts and analysis from thirty leading military historians.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781250101143
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Publication date: 11/08/2016
Pages: 240
Sales rank: 1,190,388
Product dimensions: 8.30(w) x 10.50(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

CHRIS MCNAB is an author and editor specializing in military history and military technology. To date he has published more than 40 books, including A History of the World in 100 Weapons (2011), Deadly Force (2009) and Tools of Violence (2008). He is the contributing editor of Hitler's Armies: A History of the German War Machine 1939-45 (2011) and Armies of the Napoleonic Wars (2009). Chris has also written extensively for major encyclopedia series, magazines and newspapers. He lives in South Wales.

Read an Excerpt

American Battles & Campaigns

A Chronicle from 1622â"2010


By Chris McNab

St. Martin's Press

Copyright © 2016 Amber Books Ltd.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-250-10115-0



CHAPTER 1

Colonial Wars and the War of Independence, 1622–1783


North America became a battleground for European colonial ambitions during the 17th and 18th centuries, with Britain and France fighting a series of bloody wars against each other, and against the native peoples. But it was the War of Independence that came to redefine the political identity of the continent, with the Declaration of Independence of 4 July 1776 announcing the creation of a new nation: the United States of America.


American Colonies/French and Indian War 1622–1774

* Virginia Colony, 1622

The commercial success of tobacco cultivation at Jamestown resulted in the rapid expansion of the English plantations into surrounding Indian territory, provoking a large-scale attack and the massacre of 350 colonists by the Powhatan tribe.

* Kalingo (Kalinago), 1626

Upon arriving at the British island of St Kitts, French settlers found the native Caribs resisting, with 4000 of the Kalingo tribe in arms. The French joined forces with the British to butcher them.

* Pequot War, 1634–38

The expanding Massachusetts colony ground into the expanding Pequot tribe with bloody results. After the murder of an English trader by some of the tribe, indemnity negotiations broke down. Further incidents led to colonial punitive expeditions burning villages. Indian counterattacks led to the co-operation of Connecticut with Massachusetts against a Pequot-Narragansett alliance. An amphibious assault upon two Pequot stockaded towns devastated the tribe, making the English dominant in New England.

* Iroquois Wars, 1640–98

These were struggles between the Great Lakes tribes for control of the trade for European goods. The Iroquois Confederation combined the powerful Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Seneca tribes into a formidable body. The Iroquois desired control of the trade routes with the English settlements in New York and to increase their power and numbers decimated by multiple epidemics. The initial attacks were upon native rivals in the fur trade, which expanded to a full-scale attack upon the Hurons, through whose lands the trade went. Using European-supplied weapons, the Iroquois defeated the Hurons and went on to fight the Susquehannocks, who resisted successfully with weapons purchased from the Swedish along the Hudson and with the support of the English in Maryland and Delaware. Surrounded by hostile tribes, the Iroquois finally ceased their expansion.

* Kieft's War, 1643–45

The Dutch Governor Willem Kieft turned a theft of pigs on Staten Island into warfare with previously friendly tribes. Reprisals on both sides led to widespread slaughter, ending when the Dutch imported English mercenaries and negotiated.

* Long Sault, 1660

The Iroquois stormed this unprepared French fort at a strategic portage on the Ottawa River. Joined by some 200 friendly Hurons, Adam Dollard and 54 French unsuccessfully resisted a powerful Iroquois force coming down the river.

* King Philip's War, 1675–76

In terms of proportional casualties, this conflict remains North America's bloodiest Indian war. Alliance with the Pilgrims and subsequent Puritan settlements in and around Boston had made the Wampanoag tribe the most powerful in New England, but upon assuming leadership, Metacom, christened 'King Philip' by the Pilgrims, realized that English expansion would include his tribe's lands. Colonial efforts to disarm his tribe exasperated Metacom's fears and prompted his alliance with the Nipmuck and Narragansett tribes. The Wampanoags began killing English spies and raiding outlying farms, while the Massachusetts Bay Colony raised a militia and established new tribal alliances, slaughters taking place on both sides. By the time a powerful colonial force had reduced the last of Metacom's strongholds and set Metacom's head on a pike, at least 2500 colonists plus an unknown, but larger number of Indians had perished.

* Bacon's Rebellion, 1676

Virginia Governor Berkeley's policy of Indian conciliation provoked a strong reaction by planter Nathaniel Bacon, who led colonial attacks upon the Susquehannocks and Pamunkey tribes. Bacon lost support when he burned the capital at Jamestown.

* Lachine Massacre, 5 August 1689

With England suddenly at war with France, the allied Iroquois sacked this French village with 1500 warriors under cover of a hailstorm. The village's three blockhouses could not prevent the death or capture of 114 inhabitants.

* Leisler's Rebellion, 1689

After the Glorious Revolution, protestant Jacob Leisler seized power in New York, seeking royal authorization for his measures against Catholics and Indians. Leisler's plan backfired and he was hanged after the return of British government and his enemies to power.

* Port Royal, 19 May 1690

This French bastion and naval base in Acadia became a target of the English colonists in King William's War. Sir William Phips led a Massachusetts regiment by sea against the town, which Governor Meneval surrendered.

* Apalachee Massacre, 25–26 January 1704

During the War of the Spanish Succession, Governor James Moore of British Carolina attacked the allied Apalachee tribe in Florida with colonists and native allies. The 1000 surviving Apalachees were taken as slaves back to Carolina.

* Deerfield, 29 February 1704

The French and allied Indians attacked this western Massachusetts town, killing 41 villagers and taking 112 for ransom to Canada. The attackers scaled the ungarrisoned town's stockades at night and captured the village's houses individually.

* Cary's Rebellion, 1707–11

Thomas Cary, governor of Carolina, disputed the claim of Edward Hyde to be his appointed successor. Sporadic fighting between associated religious factions ended when Royal Marines entered the capital, with Cary eventually acquitted of treason charges.

* Bloody Creek, 1711

Acadian French and Abenaki Indians successfully ambushed 70 Massachusetts militia in three boats moving up the Annapolis River. The ambush killed 16 in the first boat and wounded nine of the others, capturing the surrendering survivors.

* Quebec Expedition, 1711

Buoyed by success in Nova Scotia, the Massachusetts colony sent 12,000 sailors and soldiers under Sir Hovenden Walker against French Canada. Eight transports in the Gulf of St. Lawrence grounded with 900 dead, Walker abandoning the campaign.

* Nicholson Expedition, 22 August 1711

Col Francis Nicholson led 2000 militia overland from Albany against French Canada, intending to rendezvous with Sir Hovenden Walker's forces sailing up the St. Lawrence. The troops from three colonies turned back when Walker retreated.

* Fort Neoheroka, 1713

Governor James Moore of British Carolina advanced into Florida, attacking Tuscarora Indians retaliating for British incursions into their tribal lands. Moore's taking of this fort killed many, some Tuscaroras fleeing north to join the Iroquois.

* Villasur Expedition, 1720

Along with a mixed force of Spanish and allied Indians, Pedro Villasur moved from New Mexico up the Platte River to assert Spanish authority. French traders and their Indian allies attacked and killed Villasur in Nebraska.

* Chickasaw Campaign, 1736–40

The French and allied Choctaws had defeated the Chickasaws, Natchez and their British allies in the Natchez Rebellion of 1729. The French, lacking resources to maintain their extensive claims in the Mississippi drainage, did not authorize the Choctaws to launch a surprise attack against the Chickasaws in 1734. A French gunpowder convoy opened fire upon encountering a large force of Natchez and Chickasaw, prisoners and the gunpowder ending up in the Indians' hands. Abandoning diplomatic settlement, Louisiana governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville ordered the construction of Fort Tombeché in Alabama and employed mercenaries in invasions of the Chickasaws' lands.

Warfare with the Chickasaws by both the French and Choctaws proved difficult, because of both the Chickasaw's acquisition and skilled use of European muskets and their tradition of living in hilltop forts of considerable defensive strength. The Chickasaws also proved adept at throwing French grenades back at the Europeans in the gap between ignition and detonation.

Pierre d'Artaguette led a force of French and Indian allies into ambush attacking the Chickasaw village of Ogoula Tchetoka, with the Chickasaws burning the survivors. Meanwhile, Bienville, with a European-style column, assaulted a prepared Chickasaw position at Ackia (modern Tupelo). Efforts to employ siege equipment proved futile, and the French scorned the advice of the Choctaws witnessing their attack. The resulting disaster infuriated the Choctaws, who became increasingly disaffected at French ineptitude and disdainful of them as allies. The French withdrew, Bienville leaving his governorship in 1740. They then supplied their Choctaw allies with weaponry while securing passage for their Mississippi trade from the Chickasaws. French prestige among the Indians and, consequently, influence, entered into irreversible decline.

* Stono Rebellion, 1739

Twenty colonists and 40 slaves perished in this uprising in South Carolina. A Spanish proclamation of emancipation for slaves escaping to their territory combined with a Yellow Fever outbreak to spark the revolt, which was soon crushed.

* Gully Hole Creek, 18 July 1742

The Spanish launched one major assault against the Georgia colonists, who were well prepared, with a fort and an ambush with allied Indians here. Fort Fredrica holding, the Spanish lost the resulting battle of Bloody Marsh.

* Kathio, 1750

The Chippewa attacked this large Lakota village, in retaliation (so Chippewa legends say) for the murder of four Chippewa travellers. Purchasing muskets and ammunition, the Chippewa mustered at Fond du Lac and drove out the Lakota.

* Pima Indian Revolt, 1751–52

Efforts to Christianize south-western tribes conflicted with Spanish colonization and Indian resistance to wholesale changes in daily life. Pima resistance was sporadic and largely unfocused, complicating Spanish efforts at repression. In 1751, secular Spanish resentment of the Church's lands and efforts to protect the natives' land flared up when Oacpicagigua began killing Spanish settlers. The Spanish response was crushing and the revolt and the mission system in the area both collapsed from lack of support.


American Colonies/French and Indian War 1754–1774

As each nation's colonists expanded influence over North America, the inevitable conflict began between French fur traders and English farmers. French wiles and Indian alliances could not overcome superior British resources thrown into the fray.

* Fort Necessity, 3 July 1754

Maj George Washington led 150 Virginia militia to investigate accurate reports of French entry into Trans-Allegheny Virginia. Seneca allies led Washington to a French encampment. In the resulting skirmish, the Indians butchered all but 20 of what turned out to have been a diplomatic mission, including the surrendering Ensign Jumonville. Washington began building Fort Necessity in expectation of the French counter-attack, soon receiving 350 reinforcements and constructing a military road. French soldiers numbering 600 plus 100 Indians soon reached the uncompleted fort, which could not contain Washington's entire force. Their weapons and spirits soaked in two days' worth of heavy rain, the Virginians offered only 10 hours of resistance to the French, who offered lenient terms that included Washington's unknowing admission that he had ordered Jumonville's death. The entire affair sparked a war raging for seven years from Canada to India.

* Beauséjour, 3–16 June 1755

The Micmacs and French built this pentagonal stone bastion across the Missaquash River from British Fort Thomas in Acadian territory. With a traitor's aid, the British and colonials launched a strong siege, which the fort surrendered to.

* Monongahela River, 1755

Gen Edward Braddock refused to recognize the differing nature of colonial warfare as he led a powerful column against the French forts in the Ohio valley. With a large supply train, the 2200 British regulars and militia moved slowly, road-building as they went, giving the French time to collect Indian allies and ambush Braddock at the crossing of the Monongahela River. Braddock and two-thirds of his command perished in the rout.

* Crown Point Expeditions, 1755

Crown Point was a staging point for invasions south into British areas of North America. Gen W Johnson led several columns into the area, constructing a road and Fort William Henry.

* Lake George, 8 September 1755

Gen William Johnson with 2000 militia and 200 Indian allies dug in to interdict a French invasion route. French Col Ludwig Dieskau routed a supply column, then attacked the fort without Indian support and fell captive.

* Taliwa, 1755

Expanding their territory southwards, the Cherokee (under Oconostota) invaded the territory of their long-term enemies, the Creeks. The outnumbered Cherokee defeated the Creek war-party and secured the territory north of the Chattahoochee.

* Oswego, 10–14 August 1756

Advancing against French Fort Niagara, which controlled the portage-way around the namesake falls, Governor William Shirley of Massachusetts and British Gen William Pepperell ended their march at Fort Oswego, which they further fortified with a post – Fort Ontario – and garrisoned with 1600 men. The column's retreat that winter left Forts Ontario and Oswego insufficiently defended against French Gen Montcalm's advance and siege train, Ontario's fall leaving Oswego indefensible and having to surrender.

* Fort Bull, 27 March 1757

The French followed up their victory at Fort Oswego by their winter attack on this small post further down the supply road from British territory. A total of 362 French, Canadians and Indians overwhelmed a colonial garrison of 60.

* Fort William Henry, 3–9 August 1757

The French Marquis de Montcalm continued his policy of reducing the unsupported chain of British outposts meant to forestall French counter-thrusts down from Canada. A previous attack and difficulties in transport had left Fort William Henry damaged and with smaller artillery than those possessed by the French siege-train, which included mortars. LCol George Monro commanded 1500 regular and colonial garrison with 18 guns in the fort's defence.

Montcalm's forces included 6000 French and 2000 allied Indians, lured on by promises of glory and plunder. The fort's strength prompted Montcalm to begin a classic European-style siege of trenches and traverses as his artillery weakened the fort's walls and defenders, while allowing a message that reinforcements would not be forthcoming to reach Monro. Such tactics left Montcalm's Indians bored and angry as the siege wore on for six days. In keeping with European tradition, Monro asked for terms when the French created a breach in the fort's walls.

Montcalm granted honours of war and safe passage to British territory to the British, with the French retaining the fort and its stores. Indians out to profit from the campaign proceeded to do so on the night of the surrender, by taking the scalps of the British wounded left behind and, for the following two days, attacking and slaughtering as many as 184 of the departing garrison as they sought loot, scalps and prisoners to be held for profitable ransom. French efforts to stop the Indians proved ineffective, the massacre provoking an enduring storm of resentment among the English and colonists, since celebrated in literature. Montcalm burned the fort and retreated back into Canada, while the British began preparations for a massive counter-thrust.

* Sabbath Day Point, 23 July 1757

British MGen Daniel Webb probed for Montcalm's advancing siege column in ignorance of the French numbers. Col John Parker lost 250 killed or captive when 450 French fired on his boats. Webb retreated.

* Fort Carillon, 6–8 July 1758

Gen James Abercromby led a waterborne British thrust towards the French forts along Lake Champlain towards this strong stone bastion, later Fort Ticonderoga. Both a reconnaissance and six subsequent assaults failed with heavy casualties. Abercromby withdrew.

* Louisbourg, 8 June–26 July 1758

Having survived previous attacks, this French fortified port fell after a large-scale assault by 39 British ships and landings by 13,200 troops under Gen Jeffrey Amherst. Hard fighting by both arms finally carried the town.

* Fort Frontenac, 26–28 August 1758

From the site of burned Fort Oswego, LCol John Bradstreet launched a successful amphibious attack against this vital French stone fort. Landing stealthily with 3000 men, Bradstreet's gunners' bombardment startled the French into surrender.

* Fort Duquesne, 26–28 August 1758

Gen John Forbes led a British force of 1600 regulars with several thousand Colonials against this southernmost French bastion (modern Pittsburgh), suddenly isolated by Fort Frontenac's fall. Forbes moved slowly, rebuilding Braddock's military road in preparation for British Prime Minister Pitt's planned powerful thrust into Canada. Forbes carefully wooed the surrounding Indians away from their French alliances. With supplies and living conditions eroding rapidly, the French finally burned the post and retreated north.

* Fort Ligonier, 12 October 1758

This strong wooden stockade served as a supply depot for the British column moving against Fort Duquesne. Col James Burd and his garrison repelled an attack by 1200 French with Indian support, resulting in heavy losses.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from American Battles & Campaigns by Chris McNab. Copyright © 2016 Amber Books Ltd.. Excerpted by permission of St. Martin's Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents

Contents

Title Page,
Copyright Notice,
Colonial Wars and the War of Independence, 1622–1783,
Early 19th Century Wars, 1798–1848,
Native American Wars, 1791–1890,
American Civil War, 1861–65,
Wars of the Industrial Age, 1870–1920,
World War II, 1941–45,
Modern Wars,
Index,
About the Author,
Copyright,

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