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American Negotiating Behavior: Wheeler-Dealers, Legal Eagles, Bullies, and Preachers

American Negotiating Behavior: Wheeler-Dealers, Legal Eagles, Bullies, and Preachers

Pub. Date:
United States Institute of Peace Press (USIP Press)
Pub. Date:
United States Institute of Peace Press (USIP Press)
American Negotiating Behavior: Wheeler-Dealers, Legal Eagles, Bullies, and Preachers

American Negotiating Behavior: Wheeler-Dealers, Legal Eagles, Bullies, and Preachers

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This landmark study offers a rich and detailed portrait of the negotiating practices of American officials. It assesses the multiple influences-cultural, institutional, historical, and political-that shape how American policymakers and diplomats approach negotiations with foreign counterparts and highlights behavioral patterns that transcend the actions of individual negotiators and administrations.

This volume is the latest in a series of both conceptual and country-specific assessments of cross-cultural negotiating behavior. Additional volumes in the Cross-Cultural Negotiation Series explore Iranian, Chinese, Russian, North Korean, Japanese, French, German, and Israeli and Palestinian negotiating practice.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781601270474
Publisher: United States Institute of Peace Press (USIP Press)
Publication date: 04/28/2010
Series: Cross-Cultural Negotiation Books
Pages: 376
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Richard H. Solomon has had extensive experience negotiating with East Asian leaders. As assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs, he negotiated the first UN "Permanent Five" peacemaking agreement, for Cambodia, and led U.S. bilateral negotiations with Vietnam.

Solomon has been president of the United States Institute of Peace since 1993. He is the author of seven books, including Chinese Negotiating Behavior: Pursuing Interests Through "Old Friends" (USIP Press) and coauthor of American Negotiating Behavior: Wheeler Dealers, Legal-Eagles, Bullies, and Preachers (USIP Press).

Nigel Quinney is president of The Editorial Group and a consultant to European and American think tanks, academic institutions, and multinational corporations. He has more than twenty years' experience as an editor, writer, and researcher in the fields of international relations and conflict resolution.

Table of Contents

Foreword Madeleine K. Albright ix

Foreword Condoleezza Rice xi

Preface: The Cross-Cultural Negotiation Project and the Origins of this Book xv

Acknowledgments xxi

Contributors xxiii

Part I Introduction

1 Introduction 3

Cultural and Negotiation 7

The Organization of This Book 11

Part II A Portrait of the American Negotiator

2 The Four-Faceted Negotiator 19

The Businesslike Negotiator 21

The Legalistic Negotiator 29

The Moralistic Negotiator 33

The Superpower Negotiator 38

3 At the Bargaining Table 47

Building Relationships 48

Deploying Inducements 55

Putting the Pressure On 59

Watching the Clock 71

Talking Across the Table 76

Negotiating Multilaterally 85

4 Bargaining away from the Table 93

Back Channels: An American Infatuation? 94

The Media: A Changing Balance Of Power? 102

Hospitality: An Inelegant Sufficiency 110

Other Forms of Bargaining away from the Table 115

5 Americans Negotiating with Americans 123

A Trammel and a Spur: The Influence of Congress 125

A Ticking Clock: The Impact of Election Cycles 137

The Impact of Interagency Rivalries 142

A Convenient Target: The Political Vulnerability of American Negotiators 152

Part III Historical Perspective

6 American Presidents and Their Negotiators, 1776-2009 Robert D. Schulzinger 159

The Era of Personal Diplomacy, 1776-1898 161

Negotiating as a Great Power, 1898-1932 165

The Growth of a Modern Foreign Affairs Bureaucracy, 1933-45 170

Negotiating during a Time of Containment and Consensus, 1945-68 172

From An Era of Negotiations to the End of the Cold War, 1968-89 174

The Post-Cold War World 180

Conclusion 185

Part IV Foreign Perspectives

7 Different Forums, Different Styles Chan Heng Chee 189

Bilateral Negotiations: The United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement 191

Regional Forums: Negotiating with ASEAN 193

The United Nations 195

Conclusion 198

8 Negotiating Trade: A Bitter Experience for Japanese Negotiators Koji Watanabe 201

Background to the Trade Dispute 201

Lessons Learned from the Trade Negotiations 204

A Lesson Learned from Security Negotiations 207

Toward a New Eta: From Trade Friction to Cooperation 208

9 Negotiating Security: The Pushy Superpower Faruk Logoglu 211

The New World after 9/11 212

The Turkish Experience 214

The Distinctive Patterns of American Diplomacy 216

Conclusion 220

10 Negotiating within Washington: Thrown in at the Deep End-A New Zealand Diplomat Looks Back John Wood 221

The Nuclear Divide 222

The Search for Accommodation 222

Superpower Sensitivities 223

A House Undivided 225

Negotiating with Oneself 225

Dealing wide Congress 226

The Media 228

Going the Extra Mile 229

Meltdown and After 229

The Consequences of Failure 230

Picking Up the Pieces 231

Washington Revisited 232

The Exception or the Rule? 232

11 Negotiating as a Rival: A Russian Perspective Yuri Nazarkin 237

General Characteristics of American Negotiating Behavior 239

Reaching Compromises 241

Confidentiality and Leaks 242

Playing on Our Internal Differences 244

Influencing Soviet Attitudes 245

Behind-the-Scenes Internal Differences and Their Impact upon Negotiations 246

Mistakes in Strategy 248

Looking Ahead 249

12 Negotiating Bilaterally: India's Evolving Experience with the United States Lalit Mansingh 251

"A Half Century of Misunderstandings, Miscues and Mishaps" 253

The Post-Cold War: From Strategic Irrelevance to Strategic Partnership 262

2009 and Beyond: A Narrower Cultural Gap 267

13 Negotiating multilaterally: The Advantages and Disadvantages of the U.S. Approach David Hannay 271

The U.S. Strategic Approach to Multilateral Diplomacy 272

U.S. Practice of Multilateral Diplomacy 273

Possible Remedies for U.S. Weaknesses 276

14 Negotiating with Savoir Faire: Twelve Rules for Negotiating with the United States Gilles Andreani 279

The Twelve Rules 281

Conclusion 288

Part V Conclusions

15 Conclusion: Negotiating in a Transforming World 293

Strengths and Weaknesses in American Diplomacy 293

The Changing World of International Negotiation 297

Enhancing America's Negotiating Capacities 299

Appendix: Analytical Categories Used in the Cross-Cultural Negotiation Project 315

Overall Attitude toward Negotiation 315

Domestic Context 316

Process of Negotiation 317

Negotiating Traits and Tactics 317

Communications 320

Bibliography 321

Index 335

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